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Table 2 Summary of related cases found in the literature

From: Duodenal perforations secondary to a migrated biliary plastic stent successfully treated by endoscope: case-report and review of the literature

YearSex/AgeDiagnosisNo. of stents
Diameter/length (manufacturer)
Stent type
Perforation-related symptoms and signsDiagnostic methodTherapeutic methodPostoperative hospitalization (days)Outcome
1993 [16]F/55Advanced GB cancer1
10 Fr/15 cm biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Fever and chillsCTEndoscopic removalDeathDeath from advanced GB cancer
2000 [17]M/74HCCA1
10 Fr/15 cm biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Serve abdominal pain and vomitingEndoscopeEndoscopic removal of PS and seal perforation by hemoclip10Improved
2006 [18]M/55Advanced HCCA with metastasis1
Biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Abdominal distention and epigastric tendernessERCPEndoscopic removal of PSDeathDeath from Intraoperative subcutaneous emphysema
2006 [19]M/74Periampullary carcinoma1
7 Fr/10 cm biliary PS (Amsterdam)
straight
Mild upper abdominal pain, vomiting and feverLaparotomyLaparotomyUnmentionedRecovery
2008 [20]M/75HCCA2
Biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
UnknownEndoscopeLaparotomyUnmentionedRecovery
2008 [21]F/52HCCA1
8.5 Fr/10 cm biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Fever and severe abdominal painLaparotomyLaparotomyUnmentionedRecovery
2008 [22]M/67Periampullary carcinoma1
10 Fr ST-2 biliary stent (Cook)
straight
Rigid abdomenCTLaparotomyDeathDeath from postoperative complications
2012 [23]M/55Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma2
Biliary PS and pancreatic stent (Unmentioned)
straight
No symptomsCTEndoscopic removalUnmentionedImproved
2012 [24]F/27Benign Hilar biliary stricture1
7 Fr/12 cm biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Upper abdominal painCTLaparotomy3Recovery
2013 [25]M/51CBD stone1
10 Fr/10 cm biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Deeply jaundiced and distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness and rigidityCTLaparotomy12Recovery
2014 [26]M/67Hilar biliary stricture after liver transplantation1
8.5 Fr/10 cm biliary PS (Cotton-Leung; Wilson-COOK)
straight
FeverCTLaparotomyUnmentionedDeath from postoperative sepsis
2015 [27]M/48Hilar biliary stricture after liver transplantation1
biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Abdominal pain and feverCTEndoscopic removal and seal perforation by over-the-scope clipUnmentionedImproved
2018 [28]F/79CBD stones and stricture2
7 Fr/12 cm biliary PS; 10 Fr/15 cm biliary PS (Boston Scientific)
straight
Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal painCTEndoscopic removal by using Raptor™ grasping device and seal perforation by TTS endoclips4Recovery
2018 [29]M/87Acute cholangitis and CBD stones1
10 Fr/15 cm biliary PS (Endo-FlexGmbH)
straight
Diffuse abdominal pain of growing intensityCTLaparotomyUnmentionedRecovery
2019 [30]M/71Cholangiocarcinoma1
8.5 Fr/12 cm biliary PS (Unmentioned)
straight
Fever and abdominal painCTEndoscopic removal and closure of perforation by over-the-scope clip. One 7 Fr/9 cm PS was positioned.UnmentionedImproved
2019 [31]M/55Post-cholecystec-tomy Biliary leak1
10 Fr/10 cm biliary PS (CLSO, Cook)
straight
Distended abdomen and diffuse abdominal tendernessCTEndoscopic removal of PS by using snare and closure of perforation by HemoclipsUnmentionedUnmentioned
2019 [31]M/78GB cancer2
7 Fr/10 cm, 12 cm biliary PS (CLSO, Cook)
straight
High fever and abdominal painCTEndoscopic removal of stents by using rat-tooth forceps and closure of perforation by HemoclipsUnmentionedImproved
2019 [31]M/72Klaskin tumor, Bismuth type IIIa1
10 Fr/12 cm biliary PS (Double Layer,Olympus)
straight
Abdomen pain with tendernessCTEndoscopic removal of PS by using snare and closure of perforation by hemoclips and fibrin glueUnmentionedImproved
2019 [31]F/84Klaskin tumor, Bismuth type IIIa1
10 Fr/12 cm biliary PS (CLSO, Cook)
straight
Constant mild abdominal painCTEndoscopic removal of PS by using snare and closure of perforation by hemoclipsUnmentionedImproved
2019 [31]F/73GB cancer1
10 Fr/15 cm biliary PS (CLSO, Cook)
straight
Recurrent
jaundice and abdominal pain
CTEndoscopic removal of PS by using forceps forceps. Perforation was closed by Hemoclips. PTCD was performedUnmentionedImproved
  1. abbreviations: CBD Common bile duct, PS Plastic stent, Fr French, GB Gallbladder, HCCA Hilar cholangiocarcinoma;