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Table 1 The main characteristics of Case – Control studies of the effect of H pylori on risk of diabetes

From: Helicobacter pylori infection as a risk factor for diabetes: a meta-analysis of case-control studies

AuthorsYearsCountryControl subjects(selection methods)AgeSample sizeType of Diabetic
(Mean HbA1C)
(Duration of disease)
Measurement of association
Odds Ratio
(CI 95%)
Controlled variablesBacteria detectionNOS
Score
Małecki, M. et al. [26]1996PolandNon-diabetic subjects17–80139 (Control:100 & Case: 39)DM (−)
(8 Year)
0.33
(0.18, 0.59)
Histology or biopsy6
Pocecco, M. et al. [27]1997ItalyAdmitted for minor extra-abdominal surgery with no history of abdominal pain16379
[Control:310 & Case: 69]
DM
(−)
(−)
3.13
(2.08, 4.70)
Age, sex, education and economicRapid urease test6
Gentile, S [28].1998ItalyNon-diabetic subjects52328 (Control:164 & Case: 164)T2DM
(8.3 ± 1.4)
1.77
(1.35, 2.31)
Age, sex and body weightHistology or biopsy7
De Luis, DA [29]1998SpainThe control subjects were healthy volunteers, with similar age and sex-distribution that the diabetic patients25180
Control: 100 & Case: 80
T1DM (−)
(3.1
Year)
1.36
(0.98, 1.87)
Age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody6
Gasbarrini, A.et al. [30]1998ItalyHealthy subjects35166
[Control: 50 & Case:
116]
DM
(−)
(19 year)
1.04
(0.85, 1.28)
Age and sex13C or 14C urea breath test6
Salardi, S.et al. [31]1999ItalyChildren with minor endocrine disorders.12339
[Control: 236 & Case:
103]
T1DM
(−)
(−)
1.47
(0.99, 2.18)
AgeAnti H. pylori antibody7
Arslan, D. et al. [32]2000TurkeyNon-diabetic subjects12130 (Control: 42 & Case: 88)T1DM (11.08 ± 3.17)
(3.85 Year)
1.38
(1.08, 1.75)
Anti-H. pylori antibody6
Dore, MP. et al. [33]2000ItalyBlood donors from the same geographic area12–75891
[Control: 506 & Case: 385]
DM
(greater than 1 year)
1.16
(1.00, 1.35)
age and socioeconomic statusAnti-H. pylori antibody8
Senturk, O. et al. [34]2001TurkeyNondiabetic patients undergoing upper diagnostic endoscopies54.1140
[Control: 73 & Case: 67]
T2DM
(6.42 ± 0.97)
(4.5 year)
1.39
(0.78, 2.48)
Age and socioeconomicHistology or biopsy7
Ravera, M.et al. [35]2001UgandaDyspeptic patients without diabetic132
[Control110: & Case: 22]
DM
(−)
(−)
1.22
(0.33, 4.49)
Histology or biopsy6
Ko, G. T.et al. [36]2001ChineWith upper GI symptoms in whom49.9118
[Control55: & Case: 63]
T2DM
(8.25 ± 2.22) (6.2 year)
0.90
(0.64, 1.26)
Age and sexRapid urease test6
Marrollo M.et al. [37]2001ItalyNon diabetic dyspeptic patients63191
[Control: 117& Case: 74]
DM
(−)
(−)
1.54
(1.05, 2.27)
Age and sexRapid urease test and Histology or biopsy6
Quatrini, M.et al. [38]2001ItalyDyspepsia patients58142
[Control: 71 & Case: 71]
DM
(−)
(−)
1.63
(1.12, 2.38)
Age and sex13C or 14C urea breath test7
Cenerelli, S. et al. [39]2002ItalyControl subjects were first selected on the basis of the admission criteria of the senieur protocol.5573
Control: 43 & Case: 30)
T2DM (6.1 ± 1.8)
(3.1
Year)
1.04
(0.60, 1.80)
13C or 14C urea breath test7
Maule, S.et al. [40]2002ItalyIndividuals without diabetes46–7562
[Control:31 & Case: 31]
T2DM
(7.1 ± 1.4)
(−)
1.65
(0.92, 2.97)
Age13C or 14C urea breath test8
Candelli, M. et al. [41]2003ItalyThe control Group was selected normal healthy adolescent17268
Control: 147 & Case: 121)
T1DM (8.2 ± 1.4)
(6.7 Year)
0.97
(0.72, 1.30)
Sex, age and social classRapid urease test,
Histology or biopsy
7
Gulcelik, N. E.et al. [4]2005TurkeyDyspeptic non diabetic subjects51.9149
[Control: 71 & Case: 78]
T2DM
(8.2 ± 1.4)
1.92
(1.29, 2.86)
Age and BMIHistology or biopsy7
Jaber, S. M.et al. [42]2006Saudi ArabiaHealthy children> 10604
[Control:543 & Case: 61]
T1DM
(−)
(−)
1.60
(0.98, 2.63)
Anti H. pylori antibody6
Bener, A. et al. [43]2007QatarNon-diabetic subjects48420 (Control:210 & Case: 210)T2DM
(6.9 ± 1.4)
(−)
5.03
(3.90, 6.47)
Age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody7
Demir, M. et al. [44]2008TurkeyThe control Subjects were selected in the gastroenterology clinics52283
Control: 142 & Case: 141
T2DM
(−)
(6 year)
1.07
(0.84, 1.36)
Age and sexRapid urease test and Histology or biopsy7
Ariizumi, K. et al. [45]2008Japannon-diabetic subjects without upper GI tract disorders62134
[Control: 67 & Case: 67]
DM
(−)
(15.1 year)
0.74
(0.53, 1.03)
age and sex-matchedAnti H. pylori antibody,
Rapid urease test, Histology or biopsy
8
Hamed, S. A.et al. [46]2008EgyptSubjects with neither history nor clinical evidence of gastrointestinal problems; vascular, inflammatory, or neurologic diseases.47.6140
[Control:60 & Case: 80]
DM
(−)
(9.2 year)
1.29
(0.83, 2.01)
Age and sexAnti H. pylori antibody8
Cabral, V. L. R. et al. [47]2009BrazilThe control Group was selected normal healthy adolescent1745
Control: 30 & Case: 15)
T1DM (−)
(−)
0.52
(0.21, 1.29)
Histology or biopsy7
Lazaraki, G. et al. [48]2009Greecenon-smoking, non-diabetic with of dyspepsia6579
[Control: 30 & Case: 49]
T2DM
(−)
(3 year)
0.99
(0.70, 1.40)
Age, sex, H. pylori-infection, degree of gastritisRapid urease test and Histology or biopsy7
Krause, I. et al. [49]2009ColombiaIndividuals had no clinical diabetes, nor islet cell autoantibodies16.0180
[Control: 123: & Case: 57]
T1DM
(−)
(8.8 year)
0.44
(0.29, 0.66)
Anti-H. pylori antibody6
Devrajani, BR. et al. [15]2010PakistanNon diabetic individuals with positive or negative Helicobacter pylori infection53148
[Control: 74 & Case: 74]
T2DM
(−)
(5 years)
1.64
(1.11, 2.43)
Stool antigen test7
Ibrahim, A. et al. [50]2010EgyptDyspeptic non diabetic subjects45200
[Control: 102 & Case: 98]
T2DM
(8.57 ± 0.79)
(−)
0.94
(0.71, 1.25)
Rapid urease test, Histology or biopsy7
El-Eshmawy, M. M. et al. [51]2011EgyptNon-diabetic subjects20242 (Control:80 & Case: 162)T1DM
(8.2 ± 1.75)
(7.29 Year)
1.63
(1.25, 2.11)
Age, sex, geographic area and socioeconomic statusAnti-H. pylori antibody7
De Block, C. E. M. et al. [52]2012BelgiumOne-hundred sex- and age-matched controls were tested for H. pylori serology.40329
Control: 100 & Case: 229)
T1DM (7.8 ± 1.0)
(18 Year)
0.86
(0.74, 1.02)
Age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody &
Rapid urease test and Histology or biopsy
7
Candelli, M. et al. [53]2012ItalyHealthy children19.8174
[Control: 99 & Case: 75]
T1DM
(8.8 ± 0.80)
(−)
1.96
(1.40, 2.75)
Age, sex and socio-economic13C or 14C urea breath test6
Jafarzadeh, A.et al. [54]2012IranHealthy individuals42.86200
[Control: 100 & Case: 100]
T2DM
(−)
(−)
1.03
(0.74, 1.42)
AgeAnti H. pylori IgG6
Keramat, F. et al. [55]2013IranNon-diabetic subjects51158 (Control: 79 & Case: 79)DM (8.96 ± 1.82)
(2.78 Year)
1.29
(0.89, 1.88)
Age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody &
Rapid urease test and Histology or biopsy
8
Zekry, O. A. et al. [56]2013EgyptHealthy children and adolescents12.53120
[Control: 60 & Case: 60]
T1DM
(7.75 ± 1.67)
(9.25 year)
1.69
(1.21, 2.35)
Age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody8
Chobot, A. et al. [57]2014PolandThis group was enrolled from a large cohort of children13.4447
[Control: 298 & Case: 149]
T1DM
(7.69 ± 1.63)
(4.6 year)
0.74
(0.48, 1.15)
Age- and sex13C or 14C urea breath test8
Fayed, SB. et al. [58]2014Egypthealthy normal volunteers12.2106
[Control:53 & Case: 53]
T1DM
(9.6 ± 1.6)
(12.2 year)
1.80
(1.14, 2.84)
Age and sexAnti H. pylori antibodies7
Zhou, F. et al. [17]2015ChinaNon-diabetic subjects with dyspepsia symptoms45253 (Control:65 & Case: 188)T2DM
(8.2 ± 1.9)
1.15
(0.99, 1.33)
Age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody
&
Rapid urease test
9
Bajaj, S. et al. [3]2015IndiaThe control group comprised of age, sex, socioeconomic status, and education matched normal healthy volunteers> 18140
Control: 60 & Case: 80)
T2DM (8.2 ± 1.2)
(4.2 Year)
1.53
(1.04, 2.24)
Age, sex, socioeconomic status, and educationAnti-H. pylori antibody &
Rapid urease test and Histology or biopsy
8
Bazmamoun, H. et al. [59]2016IranNon-diabetic subjects10160 (Control: 80 & Case: 80)T1DM (8.00 ± 0.65)
(2.72 Year)
1.50
(1.09, 2.07)
Age, sex, socioeconomic statusAnti-H. pylori antibody8
Osman, S. M.et al. [60]2016SudanHealthy children1–18180
[Control: 90 & Case: 90]
T1DM
(−)
(6 month)
0.97
(0.71, 1.33)
age and sexAnti-H. pylori antibody8
Alzahrani, S. et al. [61]2017Saudi ArabiaNon-diabetic subjects49842 (Control:421 & Case: 421)DM (6.1 ± 0.6)1.01
(0.88, 1.16)
Age,
sex, race,
DPP intervention, length of follow-up time, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking
Anti-H. pylori antibody
&
Rapid urease test
9
Vaishnav, B. et al. [62]2018IndiaNon diabetic with dyspepsia56287
[Control: 140 & Case:
147]
T2DM
(8.4 ± 1.0)
(7.59 year)
1.89
(1.51, 2.36)
Rapid urease test8