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Table 3 Fecal incontinence subgroup analysis for year of publication, geographic region, study design and age range

From: Long-term outcomes and quality of life of patients with Hirschsprung disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Long-term outcomeSubgroup characteristicsSubgroup categoriesNumber of studiesPooled prevalence / mean (95% CI)Heterogeneity (I2, P)
Fecal incontinenceYear of publication<  200860.19 (0.07, 0.30)0, 0.71
> 200840.20 (0.06, 0.33)0, 0.42
Geographic regionEurope50.16 (0.05, 0.28)0, 0.72
Oceania20.33 (0.07, 0.59)0, 0.34
Asia20.21 (0.04, 0.40)16.5%, 0.27
North America10.06 (−0.42, 0.55)N/A
Study designCase-control30.14 (−0.03, 0.30)0, 0.61
Cohort study10.14 (− 0.06, 0.34)N/A
Cross-sectional60.24 (0.12, 0.36)0, 0.63
Age at follow-up (years) a≤ 1920.14 (−0.03, 0.32)0, 0.73
>  2040.20 (0.08, 0.32)0, 0.53
Age at surgery (years) b<  0.510.03 (−0.31, 0.37)N/A
≥ 0.550.17 (0.07, 0.28)0, 0.83
ConstipationYear of publication<  200860.16 (0.02, 0.31)36.7%, 0.162
> 200840.17 (0.04, 0.31)0, 0.43
Geographic regionEurope50.13 (0.02, 0.25)7.3%, 0.37
Oceania20.42 (0.16, 0.68)38.4%, 0.20
Asia20.08 (−0.07, 0.24)0, 0.77
North America10.06 (− 0.42, 0.55)N/A
Study designCase-control30.23 (0.06, 0.39)0, 0.46
Cohort study10.01 (−0.19, 0.21)N/A
Cross-sectional60.17 (0.02, 0.31)23.6%, 0.257
Age at follow-up (years) a≤ 1920.09 (−0.08, 0.27)0, 0.89
>  2040.13 (0.01, 0.25)32.5%, 0.22
Age at surgery (years) b<  0.510.06 (−0.28, 0.40)N/A
≥ 0.550.13 (0.03, 0.23)6.2%, 0.37
Bladder dysfunctionYear of publication<  200820.08 (−0.20, 0.36)0, 0.68
> 200830.08 (−0.09, 0.26)0, 0.95
Geographic regionEurope20.06 (−0.16, 0.28)0, 0.90
Oceania10.13 (−0.22, 0.47)N/A
Asia10.12 (−0.18, 0.41)N/A
North America10.00 (−0.48, 0.48)N/A
Study designCase-control10.08 (−0.24, 0.39)N/A
Cohort study0N/AN/A
Cross-sectional40.08 (−0.09, 0.25)23.6%, 0.257
Age at follow-up (years) a≤ 1910.00 (−0.48, 0.48)N/A
>  2030.08 (−0.09, 0.26)0, 0.95
Age at surgery (years) b<  0.520.06 (−0.16, 0.28)0, 0.90
Unclear30.10 (−0.11, 0.30)0, 0.91
  1. aOnly studies with all participants older than 20 years or younger than 19 years were included
  2. bOnly studies reporting the patients’ age when they received surgery were included