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Table 4 Association between patient factors and pathogen frequencies

From: Use of microbiological and patient data for choice of empirical antibiotic therapy in acute cholangitis

Univariate analysis
   Enterococcus spp.Enterobacterales3GCREMRGNP. aeruginosa
  n p-value p-value p-value p-value p-value
Age< 65y18057.8%0.66448.3%0.13411.2%0.6219.0%0.5925.6%0.823
> = 65y16860.1%56.5%13.5%10.8%6.5%
Sexm22258.6%0.91053.2%0.73815.6%0.01613.3%0.0087.2%0.252
f12659.5%50.8%6.5%4.0%4.0%
Charlson Index< 520153.7%0.02750.2%0.3848.6%0.0197.5%0.1005.0%0.366
> = 514665.8%55.5%17.4%13.2%7.5%
MDR carrierno28957.8%0.38651.6%0.5709.1%≤0.0017.3%≤0.0015.2%0.224
yes5964.4%55.9%28.1%22.8%10.2%
Time of bile collection from admission≤ 48 h15359.5%1.00069.3%≤ 0.00113.9%0.5097.2%0.1474.6%0.488
>  48 h19058.9%38.9%11.3%12.3%6.8%
Route of bile collectionendoscopic20356.7%0.43860.1%≤ 0,00111.0%0.4026.0%0.0035.4%0.648
percutaneous14161.0%42.6%14.5%15.8%7.1%
ICUano22659.7%0.73263.3%≤ 0.00114.0%0.2288.9%0.4513.1%0.002
yes12257.4%32.0%9.1%11.7%11.5%
Antibiotic pre-treatmentbno15752.5%0.00656.3%0.37213.0%1.0007.0%0.1794.4%0.345
yes16067.9%51.2%12.4%11.9%7.4%
Prior biliary tract interventionno6442.2%0.00346.9%0.4064.8%0.0543.2%0.0594.7%0.777
yes28263.1%53.5%14.1%11.5%6.4%
Indwelling biliary tract drainageno14343.4%≤ 0.00151.7%0.9137.8%0.0447.1%0.1985.6%0.823
yes20569.8%52.7%15.4%11.8%6.3%
Stenosisno16150.9%0.00647.8%0.1338.2%0.0335.7%0.0185.0%0.503
yes18765.8%56.1%15.8%13.4%7.0%
Biliodigestive anastomosisno24859.5%0.80357.5%≤ 0.00111.5%0.5867.7%0.0445.6%0.804
yes10057.3%37.1%14.1%15.3%7.0%
Liver transplantationno30260.3%0.20156.6%≤ 0.00112.8%0.6289.7%0.7886.6%0.333
yes4650.0%23.9%8.7%11.1%2.2%
Multivariate analysis - independent predictors
 OR (95% CI)p-value       
Enterococcus spp.
 Indwelling biliary tract drainage3.11 (1.94–5.00)≤ 0.001       
Enterobacterales
 Bile collection > 48 h from admission0.41 (0.25–0.66)≤ 0.001       
 ICUa0.38 (0.23–0.63)≤ 0.001       
3GCRE
 Male sex2.61 (1.15–5.95)0.022       
 Charlson Index ≥51.98 (1.00–3.92)0.049       
 MDR carrier3.57 (1.73–7.37)≤ 0.001       
MRGN
 Male sex4.27 (1.42–12.82)0.010       
 MDR carrier2.47 (1.04–5.86)0.040       
 Percutaneous bile collection2.61 (1.13–6.01)0.024       
 Stenosis2.66 (1,02-6,95)0.046       
P. aeruginosa
 ICUa4.06 (1.59–10.34)0.003       
  1. MRGN, multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria as defined by KRINKO [6]
  2. MDR, multi-drug resistant bacteria including MRSA, MRGN, and VRE
  3. aICU, defined as treatment on ICU before or during bile sampling
  4. bAntibiotic pre-treatment within 3 months prior to admisson