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Table 1 Incidence of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations based on the types of procedures performed

From: Clinical outcomes of iatrogenic upper gastrointestinal endoscopic perforation: a 10-year study

 Total number of procedures, (n)Perforation, n (%)
Diagnostic endoscopy134,3153 (0.002)
Endoscopic mucosal resection8284 (0.483)
Esophagus190 (0)
Stomach3960 (0)
Duodenum4134 (0.968)
Endoscopic submucosal dissection272311 (0.403)
Esophagus283 (10.714)
Stomach26958 (0.296)
Endoscopic balloon dilation239 
Esophagus1860 (0)
Pyloric region530 (0)
Self-expandable metal stent insertion5041 (0.198)
Esophagus1771 (0.564)
Pyloric region3270 (0)
ERCP-related procedures11,0939 (0.081)
Duodenoscopic intubation11,0933 (0.027)
Sphincterotomy45804 (0.087)
Ampullectomy292 (6.896)
Biliary stenting7310 (0)
Total149,79228 (0.019)
  1. ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography