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Table 3 Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis of the predictors for re-bleeding after CE

From: Re-bleeding and its predictors after capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in long-term follow-up

Variable factorsOGIB with CE (N = 133)
No re-bleeding (n = 98)Re-bleeding (n = 35)Univariate p-valueMultivariate† p-valueHazard ratio95% CI
Gender (Male)46 (46.9)18 (51.4)0.795
Age ≥ 70 years44 (44.9)20 (57.1)0.295
Overt GI bleeding (melena or hematochezia)58 (59.2)23 (65.7)0.633
Hemodynamic instability9 (9.2)7 (20.0)0.0650.4111.470.59–3.71
Hb level < 7.0 (g/dL), mean (SD)7.5 (1.9)6.8 (2.0)0.0750.4980.780.38–1.60
Drop in Hb level (g/dL), mean (SD)3.7 (1.8)3.7 (1.8)0.797
Blood transfusion ≥3 units41 (41.8)16 (45.7)0.842
Previous overt GI bleeding37 (37.8)21 (60.0)0.0380.0032.801.40–5.58
Ischemic heart disease23 (23.5)12 (34.3)0.1010.0711.980.97–4.06
Aortic stenosis4 (4.1)2 (5.7)0.653
Hypertension47 (48.0)18 (51.4)0.876
Diabetes mellitus28 (28.6)10 (28.6)0.841
Cirrhosis8 (8.2)10 (28.6)0.007< 0.0014.061.88–8.78
Chronic hepatitis (HBV, HCV)6 (6.1)2 (5.7)0.783
Chronic kidney disease18 (18.4)8 (22.9)0.744
Thrombocytopenia2 (2.0)6 (17.1)0.0040.5251.440.41–5.64
Continued aspirin use11 (11.2)5 (14.3)0.762
Continued dual antiplatelet use10 (10.2)3 (8.6)0.702
Continued anticoagulant use4 (4.1)2 (5.7)0.653
Continued NSAID use3 (3.1)1 (2.9)0.782
Incomplete small bowel visualization5 (5.1)6 (17.1)0.0370.0462.971.23–7.66
  1. Data are presented as n (%) unless indicated otherwise
  2. †Variables with a P value less than 0.2 were included for the multivariate analysis, using the Cox proportional hazard regression model
  3. Abbreviations: CE capsule endoscopy, CI confidence interval, GI gastrointestinal, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs