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Table 2 Comparison of arterial AMI according to 30-day outcome

From: Prognostic factors of acute mesenteric ischemia in ICU patients

Characteristics Total (n = 214) Survivors (n = 69) Non survivors (n = 145) p- value
Demographics
 Gender, male (%) 51 55 49 0.46
 Age at diagnosis (years) (mean ± SD) 72 ± 13 72 ± 14 70 ± 13 0.16
 Length of in-hospital stay (days) (median [IQR]) 13 [5–30] 33 [16–78] 7 [3–19] <  0.001
Reason for ICU admission
 Main admission diagnosis (%) 42 71 28 <  0.001
 Surgical reason (%) 52 76 38 <  0.001
 Urgent reason (%) 90 88 90 0.66
 Aortic surgery (%) 17 25 14 0.050
PMH and comorbidities
 Arterial hypertension (%) 69 81 63 0.001
 Hypercholesterolemia (%) 47 47 46 0.93
 Diabetes (%) 20 15 23 0.16
 Cardiomyopathy (%) 57 63 55 0.23
 PMH of atrial fibrillation (%) 26 32 24 0.23
 Peripheral artery disease (%) 44 49 41 0.32
 PMH of cancer (%) 28 21 32 0.08
 Chronic inflammatory disease (%) 18 18 17 0.91
 Hypercoagulable state (%) 6 6 6 0.99
 PMH of surgery (%) 78 74 80 0.3
Laboratory findings
 CRP (mg/dl) (median [IQR]) 18 [8–25] 17 [6–24] 19 [8–28] 0.24
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl) (median [IQR]) 2 [1.2–3] 1.6 [1.1–2.8] 2.1 [1.3–3.1] 0.014
 LDH > 250 IU/l (%) 72 58 78 0.02
 Leukocytes (×103/mm3) (median [IQR]) 14.8 [8.8–22] 13 [7.4–20.3] 14.8 [9.5–21.5] 0.22
 Neutrophils (× 103/mm3) (median [IQR]) 12.6 [6.6–18] 10.7 [6.2–18.1] 12.7 [6.9–18.2] 0.54
 Lymphocytes (×103/mm3) (median [IQR]) 0.83 [0.5–1.18] 0.9 [0.55–1.14] 0.8 [0.54–1.24] 0.73
 NLR (median [IQR]) 14 [7.7–24] 10.4 [7.8–20.1] 14 [7.5–25.8] 0.36
 INR (median [IQR]) 1.4 [1.1–1.9] 1.2 [1.1–1.4] 1.4 [1.2–2] <  0.001
 Platelets 24 h before diagnosis (×103/mm3) (median [IQR]) 167 [88–277] 183 [103–263] 155 [79–269] 0.35
 Platelets < 100,000/mm3 after diagnosis (%) 59 36 69 <  0.001
 Arterial lactate at diagnosis (mmol/l) (median [IQR]) 3.6 [2–7.5] 2.5 [1.4–3.8] 4.4 [2.6–9.4] <  0.001
 Arterial lactate 24 h after diagnosis (mmol/l) (median [IQR]) 3.4 [1.7–8.7] 1.7 [1.3–2.3] 7.9 [3.3–15.4] <  0.001
 Time from ICU admission to diagnosis (days) (median [IQR]) 1 [0–4] 0 [0–1] 1 [0–6] <  0.001
CT-scan:
 Visualization of vessel obstruction (%) 28 36 24 0.1
 Hypo-enhancement of bowel wall (%) 64 45 73 <  0.001
 Bowel wall thickening (%) 37 45 33 0.11
 Dilated bowel segment (%) 37 37 35 0.9
 Fat stranding (%) 24 28 22 0.71
 Pneumatosis intestinalis (%) 37 27 43 0.04
 Air in mesenteric vessels (%) 20 15 22 0.25
 Arteriography performed (%) 8 17 5 0.002
Laparotomy:
 Not performed (%) 31 22 35
 Performed < 24 h post-diagnosis (%) 66 75 62
 Performed > 24 h post-diagnosis (%) 3 3 3
Autopsy:     
 Autopsy performed (%) 17 0 25
 Discovery of AMI during autopsy (%) 5 0 5
Therapeutic procedures
 Vasopressors in the 24 h preceding diagnosis (%) 51 19 68 <  0.001
 Maximal dose of vasopressors (gamma/min) (median [IQR]) 30 [10–53] 7 [0–23] 38 [20–67] <  0.001
 Vasopressors post-diagnosis (%) 81 55 93 <  0.001
 Antimicrobial therapy (%) 89 90 91 0.61
 Anticoagulation (%) 62 81 53 <  0.001
Scores
 SOFA (mean ± SD) 8.7 ± 5 6 ± 4 10 ± 4.7 <  0.001
 APACHE II (mean ± SD) 25 ± 10 19 ± 7.4 27 ± 10 <  0.001
Comorbidities during ICU stay
 New onset of atrial fibrillation (%) 14 12 15 0.48
 Acute pancreatitis (%) 8 1 11 0.014
 Sepsis, septic shock (%) 58 43 65 0.002
 SCVO2 < 70% or need for inotropic agent (%) 71 47 83 <  0.001
 Mechanical ventilation 24 h before diagnosis (%) 47 18 61 <  0.001
 RRT after diagnosis (%) 52 31 60 <  0.001
  1. AMI acute mesenteric ischemia, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit, PMH prior medical history, NLR neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, RRT renal replacement therapy, AKI acute kidney injury