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Table 2 Epidemiological risk factors and socioeconomic conditions of H. pylori infection

From: Detection of Helicobacter pylori and its virulence genes (cagA, dupA, and vacA) among patients with gastroduodenal diseases in Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, South Africa

Variables and categories Total participants (%) n = 444 H. pylori positive (%) n = 234 H. pylori negative (%) n = 210 Odd ratio (95% CI) X2 test P-value
Family history of ulcer and cancer
 Yes 74 (16.7) 39 (16.7) 35 (16.7) 1 0 > 0.99
 No 370 (83.3) 195 (83.3) 175 (83.3) (0.61–1.65)
Living with more than 3 people
 Yes 256 (57.7) 141 (60.3) 115 (54.8) 1.25 1.37 0.24
 No 188 (42.3) 93 (39.7) 95 (45.2) (0.86–1.83)
Drinking from untreated water sources (e.g. stream, river)
 Yes 13 (2.9) 6 (2.6) 7 (3.3) 0.76 0.23 0.63
 No 431 (97.1) 228 (97.4) 203 (96.7) (0.25–2.31)
Smoking and drinking of alcohol
 Yes 158 (35.6) 90 (38.5) 68 (32.4) 1.30 1.78 0.18
 No 286 (64.4) 144 (61.5) 142 (67.6) (0.88–1.93)
Involved in H. pylori risk occupation
 Yes 24 (5.4) 14 (6) 10 (4.8) 1.27 0.32 0.57
 No 420 (94.6) 220 (94) 200 (95.2) (0.55–2.93)
No Formal education
 Yes 32 (7.2) 18 (7.7) 14 (6.7) 1.17 0.17 0.68
 No 412 (92.8) 216 (92.3) 196 (93.3) (0.56–2.41)
Travelled outside the country within last 5 years for more than 1 month
 Yes 52 (11.7) 25 (10.7) 27 (12.9) 0.81 0.51 0.48
 No 392 (88.3) 209 (89.3) 183 (87.1) (0.45–1.45)