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Table 1 Patient Demographics

From: Economic burden of moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in six European countries

  FRANCE GERMANY ITALY SPAIN SWEDEN UK TOTAL
N 59 102 112 112 36 104 525
Study centre recruitment, n (%)
 Primary Care 0 (0.0) 40 (39.2) 0 (0.0) 25 (22.3) 1 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 66 (12.6)
 Specialist Care 59 (100.0) 62 (60.8) 112 (100.0) 87(77.7) 35 (97.2) 104 (100.0) 459 (87.4)
Age (years), mean (SD) 47.7 (15.7) 47.6 (18.1) 41.7 (17.0) 46.8 (13.7) 41.4 (12.7) 45.5 (14.6) 45.3 (15.8)
Female, n (%) 49 (83.1) 85 (83.3) 96 (85.7) 96 (85.7) 33 (91.7) 97 (93.3) 456 (86.9)
Higher education (university or similar), n (%) 16 (27.1) 42 (41.2) 50 (44.6) 30 (26.8) 15 (41.7) 31 (29.8) 184 (35.0)
Employment status, n (%)
 Unemployed 12 (20.3) 9 (8.8) 15 (13.4) 31 (27.7) 4 (11.1) 25 (24.0) 96 (18.3)
 Student 1 (1.7) 10 (9.8) 15 (13.4) 3 (2.7) 2 (5.6) 1 (1.0) 32 (6.1)
 Part time (≤20 h/ week) 2 (3.4) 12 (11.8) 8 (7.1) 10 (8.9) 3 (8.3) 18 (17.3) 53 (10.1)
 Full time (> 20 h/ week) 29 (49.2) 44 (43.1) 62 (55.4) 49 (43.8) 24 (66.7) 47 (45.2) 255 (48.6)
 Retired 14 (23.7) 27 (26.5) 12 (10.7) 19 (17.0) 3 (8.3) 13 (12.5) 88 (16.8)
 Employed patients with salary above the national averagea, n (%) 11 (19.0) 19 (18.6) 23 (20.5) 42 (37.5) 20 (55.6) 38 (36.5) 153 (29.2)
Level of physical exerciseb, n (%)
 Low 38 (64.4) 44 (43.1) 68 (60.7) 67 (59.8) 11 (30.6) 53 (51.0) 281 (53.5)
 Intermediate 15 (25.4) 47 (46.1) 34 (30.4) 33 (29.5) 14 (38.9) 38 (36.5) 181 (34.5)
 High 2 (3.4) 11 (10.8) 10 (8.9) 12 (10.7) 11 (30.6) 13 (12.5) 59 (11.2)
 Consumes alcohol, n (%) 6 (10.2) 31 (30.4) 25 (22.3) 22 (19.6) 27 (75.0) 61 (58.7) 172 (32.8)
 Current smoker, n (%) 8 (13.6) 15 (14.7) 22 (19.6) 26 (23.2) 7 (19.4) 22 (21.2) 100 (19.0)
 Patients who follow a diet, n (%) 12 (20.3) 21 (20.6) 50 (44.6) 48 (42.9) 15 (41.7) 43 (41.3) 189 (36.0)
Type of diet, n (%)
 Hypocaloric 2 (3.4) 2 (2.0) 7 (6.3) 10 (8.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.9) 24 (4.6)
 Low sodium 1 (1.7) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.8) 9 (8.0) 1 (2.8) 1 (1.0) 15 (2.9)
 Low carbohydrate 1 (1.7) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.8) 7 (6.3) 4 (11.1) 5 (4.8) 20 (3.8)
 High-fibre 4 (6.8) 4 (3.9) 24 (21.4) 27 (24.1) 4 (11.1) 9 (8.7) 72 (13.7)
 Low-fibre 0 (0.0) 2 (2.0) 6 (5.4) 4 (3.6) 1 (2.8) 12 (11.5) 25 (4.8)
 Other 5 (8.5) 13 (12.7) 14 (12.5) 6 (5.4) 7 (19.4) 18 (17.3) 63 (12.0)
Previous GI surgery, n (%)
Appendectomy/cholecystectomy 23 (39.0) 31 (30.4) 25 (22.3) 20 (17.9) 6 (16.7) 30 (28.8) 135 (25.7)
Bariatric surgery or surgery to remove a GI tract segment 2 (3.4) 3 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.8) 1 (1.0) 7 (1.3)
Other surgeries of the abdomen, pelvis, or retroperitoneal structures 17 (28.8) 19 (18.6) 16 (14.3) 27 (24.1) 11 (30.6) 37 (35.6) 127 (24.2)
Time since IBS-C diagnosis (years), mean (SD) 2.6 (6.3) 4.6 (8.4) 2.9 (3.8) 2.3 (2.8) 2.3 (3.4) 2.6 (4.0) 3.0 (5.2)
Symptom duration (years), mean (SD) 13.5 (13.5)1 15.0 (16.9) 10.4 (9.1) 9.6 (9.9) 15.6 (12.2) 15.3 (14.9) 12.8 (13.1)
  1. aAverage gross income (€/year): France: 35,511; Germany: 42,633; Italy: 26,040; Spain: 27,674; Sweden: 40,568; UK: 39,303. bLow level: Sports activities 0–1 times a week/ walk less than 0.5 h per day; Medium level: Sports activities 2–3 times per week/ walk at least 0.5 h per day; High level: sports activities at least 4 times per week. 1N = 51
  2. SD Standard deviation; GI gastrointestinal