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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants, by HIV status

From: Comparison of the prevalence, severity, and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in HIV-infected and uninfected people

Characteristic HIV+ (n = 171) HIV-(n = 97) P
Median age, years (IQR) 54.5 (50.4, 59.5) 55.5 (51.6, 59.9) 0.33
Male sex, n (%) 170 (99%) 97 (100%) 0.45
Race/ethnicity, n (%)    0.40
 White 26 (15%) 10 (10%)  
 Black/African American 131 (77%) 82 (84%)  
 Hispanic 11 (6%) 3 (3%)  
 Other 3 (2%) 2 (2%)  
Body mass index, n (%)    0.007
 < 18.5 kg/m2 4 (2%) 0  
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 70 (41%) 30 (31%)  
 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 68 (40%) 34 (35%)  
 ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 29 (14%) 33 (34%)  
Median SAT area, cm2 (IQR) 183.4 (107.4, 270.5) 251.2 (184.2, 348.0) < 0.001
Median VAT area, cm2 (IQR) 95.3 (48.7, 142.7) 106.4 (58.4, 148.5) 0.39
Diabetes mellitusa, n (%) 33 (19%) 19 (20%) 0.95
Hypertensionb, n (%) 140 (82%) 80 (83%) 0.77
Alcohol consumptionc, n (%)    0.28
 Not current 59 (34%) 29 (30%)  
 Non-hazardous 33 (19%) 12 (12%)  
 Hazardous/at risk 13 (8%) 9 (9%)  
 Dependence/abuse 66 (39%) 47 (48%)  
Current ART use, n (%)d 156 (91%)
Median years on ART (IQR) 6.3 (3.8–9.6)
Median HIV RNA, copies/mm3 (IQR) 48 (40, 72)
HIV RNA < 75 copies/mm3, n (%) 141 (82%)
Median nadir CD4 count, cells/mm3 (IQR) 196.5 (79, 320)
Median current CD4 cell count, cells/mm3 (IQR) 462 (300, 673)
Current CD4 cell count category, n (%)  
 < 200 cells/mm3 19 (11%)   
 200–350 cells/mm3 39 (23%)   
 350–500 cells/mm3 35 (20%)   
 > 500 cells/mm3 77 (45%)   
 Missing 1 (1%)   
HCV infection, n (%)e 93 (54%) 47 (48%) 0.35
Median ALT, U/L (IQR) 29 (22, 42) 29 (19, 44) 0.85
Median AST, U/L (IQR) 31.6 (24, 45) 28 (22.5, 43.5) 0.36
Median total cholesterol, mg/dL (IQR) 173 (151, 199) 176 (153, 200) 0.56
Median triglycerides, mg/dL (IQR) 120 (90, 198) 96 (73.5, 149.5) 0.002
Median high-density lipoprotein, mg/dL (IQR) 41 (33, 53) 44.5 (35.5, 57.5) 0.08
FIB-4, n (%)    < 0.001
 < 1.45 75 (44%) 51 (53%)  
 1.45–3.25 72 (42%) 28 (29%)  
 > 3.25 21 (12%) 5 (5%)  
 Missing 3 (2%) 13 (13%)  
  1. Abbreviations: ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ART antiretroviral therapy, FIB-4 fibrosis 4 score for liver fibrosis, HCV hepatitis C virus, SAT subcutaneous adipose tissue area, VAT visceral adipose tissue area
  2. aDiabetes defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis, anti-diabetic medication use, or random glucose > 200 mg/dL
  3. bHypertension defined by blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or use of anti-hypertensive medication
  4. cAlcohol consumption determined by responses to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire and alcohol dependence/abuse diagnoses
  5. dART use defined by use of at least three antiretrovirals from two different classes within 90 days of noncontrast abdominal CT scan
  6. eHCV infection defined by positive HCV antibody or detectable HCV RNA