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Table 4 Interventional therapy of initial hospital stay and interventional therapy considering all follow-ups (CT: CT-guided puncture, ERC: endoscopic retrograde cholangiographic guided puncture and stenting, PTCD: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage, SGP sonographic-guided puncture)

From: A retrospective clinical and microbial analysis of 32 patients with bilomas

Therapy Number of patients during initial hospital stay Proportion of patients (%) during initial hospital stay Number of patients during clinical follow-up Proportion of patients (%) during clinical follow-up
Wait-and-see approach
 No intervention 7 21.9% 6 18.8%
Single modal therapy
 CT 1 3.1% 2 6.3%
 ERC 5 15.6% 5 15.6%
 PTCD 1 3.1% 1 3.1%
Multimodal therapy
 ERC, SGP 3 9.4% 2 6.3%
 ERC, CT 7 21.9% 5 15.6%
 ERC, SGP, CT 1 3.1% 1 3.1%
 PTCD, SGP 2 6.3% 2 6.3%
 PTCD, CT 1 3.1% 1 3.1%
 Rendezvous, SGP 2 6.3% 1 3.1%
 Rendezvous, SGP, CT 0 0.0% 1 3.1%
 ERC, PTCD (no rendezvous) 1 3.1% 1 3.1%
 ERC, PTCD, CT 1 3.1% 2 6.3%
 ERC, SGP, CT, PTCD 0 0.0% 1 3.1%
Surgery
 Biloma abscess resection 0 0.0% 1 3.1%