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Table 2 Comparison of associated factors between the participants with and without reflux esophagitis

From: What is the impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on reflux esophagitis? A cross-sectional study

Variables Reflux esophagitis Without reflux esophagitis Univariate logistic regression analysis
N (%) N (%) OR 95% CI p-value
Age < 65 years 2582 (58.4) 1839 (41.6) 1.000  
≥65 years 334 (70.5) 140 (29.5) 1.699 1.383–2.088 < 0.001**
Gender Female 1040 (51.1) 996 (48.9) 1.000  
Male 1876 (65.6) 983 (34.4) 1.828 1.627–2.053 < 0.001**
BMI (mean ± SD)   24.64 ± 3.54 23.76 ± 3.45 1.076 1.058–1.094 < 0.001**
Uric acid (mean ± SD)   6.27 ± 1.48 5.83 ± 1.45 1.226 1.178–1.277 < 0.001**
Smoking No 2402 (57.8) 1753 (42.2) 1.000  
Yes 514 (69.5) 226 (30.5) 1.660 1.403–1.964 < 0.001**
Alcohol consumption No 2196 (57.0) 1656 (43.0) 1.000  
Yes 720 (69.0) 323 (31.0) 1.681 1.453–1.945 < 0.001**
Betel nuts chewing No 2833 (59.3) 1941 (40.7) 1.000  
Yes 83 (68.6) 38 (31.4) 1.496 1.015–2.206 0.042*
Hyperlipidemia history No 304 (63.6) 174 (36.4) 1.000  
Yes 979 (66.1) 501 (33.9) 1.118 0.902–1.387 0.308
Hypertension history No 2104 (57.0) 1586 (43.0) 1.000  
Yes 812 (67.4) 393 (32.6) 1.557 1.358–1.786 < 0.001**
Diabetes history No 2480 (57.9) 1801 (42.1) 1.000  
Yes 436 (71.0) 178 (29.0) 1.779 1.479–2.139 < 0.001**
Gastric ulcer No 2420 (59.4) 1654 (40.6) 1.000  
Yes 496 (60.4) 325 (39.6) 1.043 0.895–1.216 0.589
H. pylori infection# No 2758 (59.2) 1897 (40.8) 1.000  
Yes 158 (65.8) 82 (34.2) 1.325 1.009–1.741 0.043*
Hiatal hernia No 2853 (59.1) 1975 (40.9) 1.000  
Yes 63 (94.0) 4 (6.0) 10.903 3.962–30.002 < 0.001**
Abdominal obesity No 1983 (57.1) 1490 (42.9) 1.000  
Yes 933 (65.6) 489 (34.4) 1.434 1.261–1.630 < 0.001**
Elevated TG No 2065 (57.6) 1521 (42.4) 1.000  
Yes 851 (65.0) 458 (35.0) 1.369 1.200–1.561 < 0.001**
Reduced HDL-C No 1856 (58.8) 1302 (41.2) 1.000  
Yes 1060 (61.0) 677 (39.0) 1.098 0.975–1.238 0.124
Elevated BP No 1387 (54.6) 1152 (45.4) 1.000  
Yes 1529 (64.9) 827 (35.1) 1.536 1.369–1.723 < 0.001**
Hyperglycemia No 1853 (56.1) 1449 (43.9) 1.000  
Yes 1063 (66.7) 530 (33.3) 1.568 1.384–1.777 < 0.001**
MetS No 1967 (56.2) 1533 (43.8) 1.000  
Yes 949 (68.0) 446 (32.0) 1.658 1.455–1.890 < 0.001**
MetS components 0 575 (50.2) 571 (49.8) 1.000  
1 729 (57.8) 533 (42.2) 1.358 1.156–1.595 < 0.001**
2 663 (60.7) 429 (39.3) 1.535 1.298–1.815 < 0.001**
3 533 (68.0) 251 (32.0) 2.109 1.745–2.549 < 0.001**
4 298 (68.3) 138 (31.7) 2.144 1.699–2.706 < 0.001**
5 118 (67.4) 57 (32.6) 2.056 1.468–2.879 < 0.001**
  1. OR are calculated by N (%) for categorical variables and by mean ± SD for continuous variables using univariate logistic regression analysis. # Of the 4895 participants who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, only 719 received rapid urease tests, 240 of which were positive, which represented positive H. pylori infection
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001
  3. BP blood pressure, CI confidence interval, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, H. pylori Helicobacter pylori, MetS metabolic syndrome, N number of patients, OR odds ratio, TG triglycerides