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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and demographic of patients hospitalized with acute liver failure during 2009 to 2013

From: The incidence, etiologies, outcomes, and predictors of mortality of acute liver failure in Thailand: a population-base study

Variables Survived ≥ 30 days (n = 15,087) Died within 30 days (n = 5502) p-value
Age, years 44.8 ± 20.4 51.7 ± 20.6 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 8810 (58.4%) 3467 (63.0%) < 0.001
Hospital level
 Primary, n (%) 9813(65.0%) 3484 (63.3%) 0.02
 Secondary, n (%) 2789 (18.5%) 975 (17.7%) 0.21
 Tertiary, n (%) 1106 (7.3%) 374 (6.8%) 0.19
 Others, n (%) 1379 (9.1%) 669 (12.2%) < 0.001
Residence by region   < 0.001
 Central, n (%) 3187 (21.1%) 1254 (22.8%) 0.01
 Northeast, n (%) 6075 (40.3%) 1926 (35.0%) < 0.001
 North, n (%) 1676 (11.1%) 775 (14.1%) < 0.001
 South, n (%) 1281 (8.5%) 523 (9.5%) 0.02
 Others, n (%) 2865 (19.0%) 1024 (18.6%) 0.54
Co-morbidity
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 111 (0.7%) 99 (1.8%) < 0.001
 Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 435 (2.9%) 376 (6.8%) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 1302 (8.6%) 584 (10.6%) < 0.001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%) 304 (2.0%) 242 (4.4%) < 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 392 (2.6%) 291 (5.3%) < 0.001
Etiology
 Hepatitis A virus, n (%) 16 (0.1%) 4 (0.1%) 0.50
 Hepatitis B virus, n (%) 228 (1.5%) 139 (2.5%) < 0.001
 Hepatitis C virus, n (%) 84 (0.6%) 53 (1.0%) 0.001
 Hepatitis E virus, n (%) 1 (0.00007%) 0 0.55
 Acetaminophen, n (%) 323 (2.1%) 26 (0.5%) < 0.001
 Non-acetaminophen drugs, n (%) 4363 (28.9%) 1011 (18.4%) < 0.001
 Autoimmune, n (%) 7 (0.0005%) 8 (0.1%) 0.02
 Vascular cause, n (%) 17 (0.1%) 21 (0.4%) < 0.001
 Malignant infiltration, n (%) 88 (0.6%) 272 (4.9%) < 0.001
 Other, n (%) 7 (0.0005%) 3 (0.1%) 0.82
 Indeterminate, n (%) 10,250 (67.9%) 4049 (73.6%) < 0.001