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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression models used to investigate the association between fatty liver type and potential risk factors

From: Prevalence of and risk factors for fatty liver in the general population of Northern Italy: the Bagnacavallo Study

  M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6
Normal liver vs. NAFLD
 Altered liver enzymes 0.20*** [0.15,0.26] 0.19*** [0.14,0.25] 0.25*** [0.18,0.34] 0.24*** [0.17,0.33] 0.23*** [0.17,0.31] 0.26*** [0.19,0.35]
 Male sex 0.61*** [0.49,0.75] 0.65*** [0.51,0.82] 0.58*** [0.46,0.73] 0.64*** [0.51,0.81] 0.49*** [0.37,0.64]
 Age (years) / 10 0.53*** [0.46,0.60] 0.60*** [0.52,0.69] 0.61*** [0.53,0.70] 0.61*** [0.53,0.70] 0.65*** [0.56,0.75]
 BMI (kg/m2) / 5 0.26*** [0.22,0.30]
 WC (cm) / 10 0.39*** [0.34,0.43]
 Metabolic syndrome 0.20*** [0.16,0.26]
 High waist circumference 0.29*** [0.21,0.39]
 High triglycerides 0.38*** [0.29,0.50]
 Low HDL 0.54*** [0.39,0.76]
 High blood pressure 0.56*** [0.43,0.72]
 High fasting glucose 0.52*** [0.39,0.69]
n 1830 1830 1830 1830 1830 1830
 ROC-AUC 0.61 0.72 0.83 0.82 0.78 0.81
AFLD vs. NAFLD
 Altered liver enzymes 1.09 [0.81,1.48] 0.89 [0.65,1.21] 0.87 [0.64,1.20] 0.91 [0.66,1.24] 0.87 [0.63,1.19] 0.87 [0.63,1.20]
 Male sex 1.95*** [1.44,2.63] 1.96*** [1.44,2.65] 1.89*** [1.39,2.56] 1.95*** [1.44,2.64] 1.52* [1.09,2.13]
 Age (years) / 10 0.82* [0.70,0.97] 0.83* [0.70,0.97] 0.84* [0.71,0.99] 0.82* [0.69,0.97] 0.80* [0.67,0.96]
 BMI (kg/m2) / 5 1.01 [0.87,1.17]
 WC (cm) / 10 0.92 [0.81,1.03]
 Metabolic syndrome 1.05 [0.79,1.39]
 High waist circumference 0.68* [0.47,0.97]
 High triglycerides 1.58** [1.17,2.13]
 Low HDL 0.64* [0.44,0.93]
 High blood pressure 1.10 [0.78,1.56]
 High fasting glucose 1.12 [0.82,1.53]
n 896 896 896 896 896 896
 ROC-AUC 0.51 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.61 0.63
Whole model
N 2159 2159 2159 2159 2159 2159
 AIC 3932 3754 3290 3402 3537 3419
 BIC 3955 3800 3347 3459 3594 3521
 Pseudo-R2 (Nagelkerke) 0.10 0.19 0.38 0.34 0.28 0.34
  1. Values are odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (multinomial logistic regression). ROC-AUC were calculated for the two binary logistic models underlying the multinomial logistic model
  2. Abbreviations: M# model number, NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, HDL high-density lipoprotein, AFLD alcoholic fatty liver disease, AIC Akaike information criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion, ROC-AUC area under the ROC curve, pseudo-R2 pseudo-squared R
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001