Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of citizens with and without altered liver enzymes

From: Prevalence of and risk factors for fatty liver in the general population of Northern Italy: the Bagnacavallo Study

  ALE- ALE+ p-value*
  n = 1810 n = 349  
Age (years) 49 (41–56) 47 (40–55) 0.03
Male sex 812 (44.9%) 267 (76.5%) < 0.001
Weight (kg) 72.0 (61.0–82.0) 84.0 (74.0–95.0) < 0.001
Height (m) 1.68 (1.60–1.74) 1.73 (1.67–1.79) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 (22.6–28.1) 27.9 (25.4–30.9) < 0.001
BMI class (NIH)    < 0.001
 Underweight 19 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Normal 871 (48.1%) 66 (18.9%)  
 Overweight 607 (33.5%) 170 (48.7%)  
 Obesity class 1 230 (12.7%) 81 (23.2%)  
 Obesity class 2 65 (3.6%) 28 (8.0%)  
 Obesity class 3 18 (1.0%) 4 (1.1%)  
Fatty liver 637 (35.2%) 259 (74.2%) < 0.001
Fatty liver degree    < 0.001
 Light 428 (67.2%) 107 (41.3%)  
 Moderate 151 (23.7%) 102 (39.4%)  
 Severe 58 (9.1%) 50 (19.3%)  
Fatty liver type    < 0.001
 None 1173 (64.8%) 90 (25.8%)  
 NAFLD 407 (22.5%) 160 (45.8%)  
 AFLD 230 (12.7%) 99 (28.4%)  
Waist circumference (cm) 100.0 (93.0–107.0) 105.0 (100.0–113.0) < 0.001
Large waist circumference 1236 (68.3%) 259 (74.2%) 0.028
Glucose (mg/dl) 89 (83–96) 93 (87–102) < 0.001
High fasting glucose 307 (17.0%) 109 (31.2%) < 0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 97 (68–139) 138 (98–206) < 0.001
High triglycerides 405 (22.4%) 159 (45.6%) < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 207 (184–234) 215 (192–240) 0.005
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 61 (51–73) 50 (44–61) < 0.001
Low HDL 219 (12.1%) 64 (18.3%) 0.002
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 126 (104–150) 138 (117–159) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 125 (120–140) 130 (120–140) < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 80 (80–90) 85 (80–90) < 0.001
High blood pressure 1053 (58.2%) 270 (77.4%) < 0.001
Metabolic syndrome 444 (24.5%) 171 (49.0%) < 0.001
Metabolic syndrome score    < 0.001
 0 216 (11.9%) 19 (5.4%)  
 1 595 (32.9%) 59 (16.9%)  
 2 555 (30.7%) 100 (28.7%)  
 3 294 (16.2%) 97 (27.8%)  
 4 117 (6.5%) 59 (16.9%)  
 5 33 (1.8%) 15 (4.3%)  
ALT (U/l) 20 (15–26) 50 (44–63) < 0.001
AST (U/l) 20 (18–24) 33 (29–41) < 0.001
GGT (U/l) 17 (12–26) 42 (27–69) < 0.001
Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.60 (0.40–0.81) 0.62 (0.49–0.90) 0.003
Alcohol intake (alcohol units/day) 2 (0–4) 3 (1–5) < 0.001
Wine intake (alcohol units/day) 2 (0–2) 2 (1–3) < 0.001
Beer intake (alcohol units/day) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0.52
Liquor intake (alcohol units/day) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) < 0.001
  1. Values are given as median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and number (proportion) for dichotomous variables
  2. Abbreviations: ALE altered liver enzymes, BMI body mass index, NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AFLD alcoholic fatty liver disease, NIH National Institutes of Health, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase
  3. *Median regression for continuous variables and Pearson’s Chi-square test for binary categorical variables