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Table 3 Predictive factors for steatorrhea development in adult patients after the diagnosis of CP (1600 cases)

From: Risk factor for steatorrhea in pediatric chronic pancreatitis patients

Predictors n (%) Univariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis
P HR (95%CI) P HR (95%CI)
Gender (male) 1161 (72.6%) < 0.001 2.502 (1.639–3.820) < 0.001 2.694 (1.756–4.133)
Age at the onset of CP, ya 42.777 ± 13.997 0.429 0.996 (0.984–1.007)   
Age at the diagnosis of CP, ya 46.798 ± 13.333 < 0.001 0.972 (0.961–0.984) < 0.001 0.966 (0.953–0.978)
Smoking history 608 (38.0%) 0.188 1.222 (0.907–1.645)   
Alcohol consumption   0.098    
 0 g/d 1000 (62.5%) Control   
 0-20 g/d 49 (3.1%) 0.481 0.661 (0.209–2.089)   
 20-80 g/d 202 (12.6%) 0.129 1.386 (0.909–2.144)   
  > 80 g/d 349 (21.8%) 0.036 1.437 (1.024–2.016)   
Body mass indexa 25.316 ± 96.332 0.882 0.996 (0.942–1.052)   
Etiology   0.018   0.143  
 ICP 1207 (75.4%) Control Control
 ACP 338 (21.1%) 0.037 1.414 (1.021–1.956) 0.219  
 Abnormal anatomy of pancreatic duct 30 (1.9%) 0.373 0.530 (0.131–2.146) 0.658  
 HCP 11 (0.7%) 0.962 0.000 (0.000–3.933E182) 0.345  
 Post-traumatic CP 7 (0.4%) 0.003 8.514 (2.088–34.720) 0.041  
 Hyperlipidemic CP 7 (0.4%) 0.952 0.000 (0.000–1.191E142) 0.178  
Initial manifestations   < 0.001   < 0.001  
 Abdominal pain 1371 (85.7%) < 0.001 0.401 (0.253–0.636) < 0.001 0.308 (0.192–0.494)
 Endocrine dysfunction 104 (6.5%) 0.130 0.604 (0.315–1.160) 0.059 0.491 (0.235–1.027)
 Others 125 (7.8%) Control Control
Pancreatic stonesbc 1114 (69.6%) 0.830 0.966 (0.701–1.330)   
Biliary strictureb 124 (7.8%) 0.097 1.512 (0.928–2.463)   
DMb 265 (16.6%) 0.031 1.450 (1.034–2.035) 0.029 1.558 (1.047–2.319)
Pancreatic pseudocystb 123 (7.7%) 0.355 1.284 (0.756–2.180)   
Morphology of MPD   0.063    
 Pancreatic stone alone 394 (24.6%) 0.047 1.837 (1.009–3.343)   
 MPD stenosis alone 495 (30.9%) 0.016 2.033 (1.144–3.613)   
 MPD stenosis and stone 506 (31.6%) 0.194 1.483 (0.818–2.687)   
 Complex pathologic changes 205 (12.8%) Control   
Type of painb   0.086    
 Recurrent acute pancreatitis 472 (29.5%) 0.007 0.534 (0.339–0.843)   
 Recurrent pain 438 (27.4%) 0.048 0.636 (0.406–0.996)   
 Recurrent acute pancreatitis and pain 388 (24.3%) 0.021 0.578 (0.364–0.919)   
 Chronic pain 62 (3.9%) 0.206 0.543 (0.211–1.398)   
 Without pain 240 (15.0%) Control   
Severe acute pancreatitisb 50 (3.1%) 0.061 0.153 (0.021–1.091)   
Pancreatic duct successful drainagebd 223 (13.9%) 0.987 1.004 (0.648–1.555)   
Treatment strategy   0.698    
 Endotherapy alone 120 (7.5%) 0.657 0.871 (0.472–1.607)   
 Surgery alone 87 (5.4%) 0.282 1.400 (0.758–2.585)   
 Both endotherapy and surgery 14 (0.9%) 0.951 0.000 (0.000–3.013E148)   
 Conservative treatment 1379 (86.2%) Control   
DM in first−/second−/third-degree relatives 76 (4.8%) 0.241 0.587 (0.241–1.429)   
Pancreatic diseases in first−/second−/third-degree relatives (excluding hereditary CP) 16 (1.0%) 0.691 0.671 (0.094–4.793)   
  1. CP chronic pancreatitis, DM diabetes mellitus, ICP idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, ACP alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, HCP hereditary chronic pancreatitis, MPD main pancreatic duct, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aMean ± SD
  3. bBefore or at the diagnosis of CP
  4. cPancreatic calcifications were also regarded as stones that are located in branch pancreatic duct or ductulus
  5. dPatients with successful MPD drainage are those whose CP was established after ERCP or pancreatic surgery or those who underwent successful MPD drainage during administration when CP diagnosis was established