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Table 2 Predictive factors for steatorrhea development in pediatric patients after the diagnosis of CP (256 cases)

From: Risk factor for steatorrhea in pediatric chronic pancreatitis patients

Predictors n (%) Univariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis
P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI)
Gender (male) 124 (48.4%) 0.411 0.353 (0.029–4.233)   
Age at the onset of CP, ya 11.573 ± 4.702 0.104 1.121 (0.977–1.286) 0.135  
Age at the diagnosis of CP, ya 18.141 ± 6.762 0.235 0.880 (0.712–1.087)   
Smoking history 14 (5.5%) 0.510 4.355 (0.055–346.356)   
Alcohol consumption   0.899    
 0 g/d 241 (94.1%) Control   
 0-20 g/d 5 (2.0%) 0.447 0.036 (0.000–2.373E3)   
 20-80 g/d 7 (2.7%) 0.716 0.043 (0.000–1.029E6)   
  > 80 g/d 3 (1.2%) 0.735 0.042 (0.000–3.846E6)   
Body mass indexa 19.304 ± 3.338 0.738 0.931 (0.611–1.419)   
Etiology   0.579    
 ICP 220 (85.9%) Control   
 ACP 2 (0.8%) 0.710 2.081 (0.043–99.757)   
 Abnormal anatomy of pancreatic duct 22 (8.6%) 0.690 2.271 (0.040–127.502)   
 HCP 7 (2.7%) 0.912 1.375 (0.005–401.007)   
 Post-traumatic CP 3 (1.2%) 1.000 1.008 (0.000–2.361E5)   
 Hyperlipidemic CP 2 (0.8%) 0.065 208.297 (0.719–6.036E4)   
Initial manifestations   0.859    
 Abdominal pain 249 (97.3%) 0.978 1.392E3 (0.000–9.416E228)   
 Endocrine dysfunction 5 (2.0%) 0.972 1.175E4 (0.000–8.352E229)   
 Others 2 (0.8%)    
Pancreatic stonesbc 170 (66.4%) 0.582 1.540 (0.331–7.173)   
Biliary strictureb 9 (3.5%) 0.678 0.045 (0.000–1.013E5)   
DMb 8 (3.1%) 0.015 51.140 (2.172–1.203E3) 0.806  
Pancreatic pseudocystb 26 (10.2%) 0.762 1.389 (0.165–11.705)   
Morphology of MPD   0.633    
 Pancreatic stone alone 82 (32.0%) 0.329 0.082 (0.001–12.473)   
 MPD stenosis alone 52 (20.3%) 0.350 0.060 (0.000–21.656)   
 MPD stenosis and stone 113 (44.1%) 0.584 0.229 (0.001–44.967)   
 Complex pathologic changes 9 (3.5%) Control   
Type of painb   0.845    
 Recurrent acute pancreatitis 93 (36.3%) 0.571 0.218 (0.001–42.016)   
 Recurrent pain 48 (18.8%) 0.950 1.167 (0.009–147.028)   
 Recurrent acute pancreatitis and pain 92 (35.9%) 0.854 0.637 (0.005–78.045)   
 Chronic pain 10 (3.9%) 0.670 0.123 (0.000–1.907E3)   
 Without pain 13 (5.1%) Control   
Severe acute pancreatitisb 7 (2.7%) 0.023 13.946 (1.442–134.909) 0.023 13.946 (1.442–134.909)
Pancreatic duct successful drainagebd 29 (11.3%) 0.904 0.774 (0.012–50.413)   
Treatment strategy   0.873    
 Endotherapy alone 44 (17.2%) 0.876 0.739 (0.017–32.985)   
 Surgery alone 11 (4.3%) 0.621 0.231 (0.001–76.658)   
 Both endotherapy and surgery 0 0.904 0.774 (0.012–51.413)   
 Conservative treatment 201 (78.5%) Control   
DM in first−/second−/third-degree relatives 29 (11.3%) 0.489 0.042 (0.000–327.986)   
Pancreatic diseases in first−/second−/third-degree relatives (excluding hereditary CP) 12 (4.7%) 0.572 0.278 (0.003–23.531)   
  1. CP chronic pancreatitis, DM diabetes mellitus, ICP idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, ACP alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, HCP hereditary chronic pancreatitis, MPD main pancreatic duct, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aMean ± SD
  3. bBefore or at the diagnosis of CP
  4. cPancreatic calcifications were also regarded as stones that are located in branch pancreatic duct or ductulus
  5. dPatients with successful MPD drainage are those whose CP was established after ERCP or pancreatic surgery or those who underwent successful MPD drainage during administration when CP diagnosis was established