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Table 1 General Characteristics of 2153 patients with CP

From: Risk factor for steatorrhea in pediatric chronic pancreatitis patients

Items Overall (n = 2153) n (%) Pediatrics (n = 291) n (%) Adults (n = 1862) n (%) P value
Gender (male) 1486 (69.0%) 143 (49.1%) 1343 (72.1%) < 0.001
Age at the onset of CP, ya 38.230 ± 16.606 11.622 ± 4.652 42.388 ± 13.692 < 0.001
Age at the diagnosis of CP, ya 43.077 ± 15.548 19.727 ± 8.953 46.727 ± 12.980 < 0.001
Smoking history 723 (33.6%) 16 (5.5%) 707 (38.0%) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption < 0.001
 0 g/d 1426 (66.2%) 272 (93.5%) 1154 (62.0%)
 0-20 g/d 70 (3.3%) 8 (2.7%) 62 (3.3%)
 20-80 g/d 237 (11.0%) 8 (2.7%) 229 (12.3%)
  > 80 g/d 420 (19.5%) 3 (1.0%) 417 (22.4%)
Body mass indexa 20.894 ± 3.354 19.380 ± 3.362 24.696 ± 88.765 0.338
Etiology < 0.001
 ICP 1633 (75.8%) 248 (85.2%) 1385 (74.4%)
 ACP 404 (18.8%) 2 (0.7%) 402 (21.6%)
 Abnormal anatomy of pancreatic duct 64 (3.0%) 24 (8.2%) 40 (2.1%)
 HCP 30 (1.4%) 12 (4.1%) 18 (1.0%)
 Post-traumatic CP 10 (0.5%) 3 (1.0%) 7 (0.4%)
 Hyperlipidemic CP 12 (0.6%) 2 (0.7%) 10 (0.5%)
Initial manifestations < 0.001
 Abdominal pain 1796 (83.4%) 280 (96.2%) 1516 (81.4%)
 Endocrine/Exocrine dysfunction 218 (10.1%) 9 (3.1%) 209 (11.2%)
 Others 139 (6.5%) 2 (0.7%) 137 (7.4%)
Pancreatic stonesb 1627 (75.6%) 269 (92.4%) 1358 (72.9%) < 0.001
 Age at pancreatic stones diagnosis 41.415 ± 15.323 20.443 ± 8.547 45.569 ± 12.746 < 0.001
 Time between onset and pancreatic stone 5.762 ± 7.144 8.829 ± 9.174 5.154 ± 6.504 < 0.001
DM 616 (28.6%) 38 (13.1%) 578 (31.0%) < 0.001
 Age at DM diagnosisa 45.848 ± 11.812 28.578 ± 11.965 46.984 ± 10.890 < 0.001
 Time between onset and DMa 5.136 ± 7.276 16.617 ± 13.447 4.381 ± 5.964 < 0.001
Steatorrhea 493 (22.9%) 46 (15.8%) 447 (24.0%) 0.002
 Age at steatorrhea diagnosisa 42.563 ± 12.555 25.880 ± 9.358 44.279 ± 11.549 < 0.001
 Time between onset and steatorrheaa 5.245 ± 8.485 13.929 ± 10.562 4.351 ± 7.719 < 0.001
Pancreatic pseudocyst 350 (16.3%) 30 (10.3%) 320 (17.2%) 0.003
 Age at pancreatic pseudocyst diagnosisa 45.776 ± 15.077 16.232 ± 7.210 48.589 ± 12.365 < 0.001
 Time between onset and pancreatic pseudocysta 4.989 ± 6.954 5.640 ± 5.828 4.927 ± 7.058 0.605
Biliary stricture 340 (15.8%) 19 (6.5%) 321 (17.2%) < 0.001
 Age at biliary stricture diagnosisa 51.218 ± 13.169 31.548 ± 13.686 52.382 ± 12.200 < 0.001
 Time between onset and biliary stricturea 5.592 ± 8.637 21.197 ± 17.565 4.668 ± 6.809 0.001
Pancreatic cancer 21 (1.0%) 1 (0.3%) 20 (1.1%) 0.238
Death 70 (3.3%) 2 (0.7%) 68 (3.7%) 0.008
Morphology of MPD < 0.001
 Pancreatic stone alone 590 (27.4%) 95 (32.6%) 495 (26.6%)
 MPD stenosis alone 598 (27.8%) 57 (19.6%) 541 (29.1%)
 MPD stenosis and stone 728 (33.8%) 128 (44.0%) 600 (32.2%)
 Complex pathologic changes 237 (11.0%) 11 (3.8%) 226 (12.1%)
Type of pain < 0.001
 Recurrent acute pancreatitis 681 (31.6%) 102 (35.1%) 579 (31.3%)
 Recurrent pain 638 (29.6%) 65 (22.3%) 573 (30.8%)
 Recurrent acute pancreatitis and pain 570 (26.5%) 106 (36.4%) 464 (24.9%)
 Chronic pain 106 (4.9%) 14 (4.8%) 92 (4.9%)
 Without pain 158 (7.3%) 4 (1.4%) 154 (8.3%)
Severe acute pancreatitis 66 (3.1%) 7 (2.4%) 59 (3.2%) 0.482
Pancreatic duct successful drainagec 1930 (89.6%) 255 (87.6%) 1675 (90.0%) 0.216
Overall treatment < 0.001
 Endotherapy alone 1505 (69.9%) 247 (84.9%) 1258 (67.6%)
 Surgery alone 244 (11.3%) 10 (3.4%) 234 (12.6%)
 Both endotherapy and surgery 181 (8.4%) 20 (6.9%) 161 (8.6%)
 Conservative treatment 223 (10.4%) 14 (4.8%) 209 (11.2%)
DM in first−/second−/third-degree relatives 135 (6.3%) 38 (13.1%) 97 (5.2%) < 0.001
Pancreatic diseases in first−/second−/third-degree relatives (excluding hereditary CP) 37 (1.7%) 15 (5.2%) 22 (1.2%) < 0.001
  1. CP chronic pancreatitis, DM diabetes mellitus, ICP idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, ACP alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, HCP hereditary chronic pancreatitis, MPD main pancreatic duct
  2. aMean ± SD
  3. bPancreatic calcifications were also regarded as stones that are located in branch pancreatic duct or ductulus
  4. cPatients with successful MPD drainage are those whose CP was established after ERCP or pancreatic surgery or those who underwent successful MPD drainage during administration when CP diagnosis was established