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Table 4 Predictors of development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with NAFLD

From: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common liver-related complication in patients with histopathologically-confirmed NAFLD in Japan

Factor Category Univariate (95% CI) P value* Multivariate (95% CI) P value*
Hazard ratio Hazard ratio
Demographic data
 Gender Male 1    1   
Female 5.59 (2.07–15.1) 0.001 5.83 (1.47–23.1) 0.012
 Age < 70 y 1      
≥70 y 0.05 (0.00–5618) 0.606    
 Body mass index < 25.0 kg/m2 1      
≥25.0 kg/m2 1.41 (0.56–3.57) 0.472    
 Hypertension Absence 1      
Presence 1.53 (0.62–3.77) 0.357    
 Hyperlipidemia Absence 1      
Presence 1.20 (0.43–3.56) 0.732    
Histological findings
 Steatosis 5–33% 1    1   
> 33% 3.30 (1.09–10.0) 0.035 9.52 (1.57–57.6) 0.014
 Lobular inflammation < 2 foci per 200× field 1      
≥2 foci per 200× field 1.70 (0.63–4.57) 0.296    
 Ballooning None / Few cells 1      
Many cells 0.57 (0.13–2.49) 0.452    
 Stage 0–3 1      
4 1.47 (0.20–11.0) 0.711    
 NAFLD activity score < 5 1      
≥5 1.30 (0.51–3.26) 0.583    
 Diagnosis according to FLIP algorithm non-NASH 1      
NASH 1.42 (0.41–4.90) 0.579    
Laboratory data
 Serum aspartate aminotransferase < 2 × ULN IU/l 1      
≥2 × ULN IU/l 1.19 (0.45–3.13) 0.730    
 Serum alanine aminotransferase < 2 × ULN IU/l 1      
≥2 × ULN IU/l 1.47 (0.59–3.64) 0.408    
 Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase < 110 IU/l 1      
≥110 IU/l 0.28 (0.08–0.96) 0.043    
 Platelet count < 200 × 103/mm3 1      
≥200 × 103/mm3 1.94 (0.64–5.87) 0.239    
 Fasting plasma glucose < 110 mg/dl 1      
≥110 mg/dl 1.31 (0.37–4.62) 0.672    
 HbA1c < 5.8% 1      
≥5.8% 2.33 (0.32–16.9) 0.404    
 Uric acid < 7.1 mg/dl 1      
≥7.1 mg/dl 1.28 (0.49–3.38) 0.615    
 Total cholesterol < 200 mg/dl 1      
≥200 mg/dl 2.43 (0.80–7.34) 0.116    
 Triglycerides < 150 mg/dl 1      
≥150 mg/dl 0.78 (0.31–1.97) 0.594    
 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 41 mg/dl 1      
≥41 mg/dl 0.49 (0.20–1.20) 0.117    
 Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 136 mg/dl 1      
≥136 mg/dl 3.20 (1.06–9.69) 0.040    
 Serum ferritin < 81 μg/l 1    1   
≥81 μg/l 0.26 (0.10–0.70) 0.008 0.18 (0.06–0.56) 0.003
 High sensitive C-reactive protein < 0.2 mg/dl 1      
≥0.2 mg/dl 1.84 (0.57–5.97) 0.312    
 Alpha-fetoprotein < 5 μg/l 1      
≥5 μg/l 1.08 (0.38–3.04) 0.887    
 PIVKA-II < 21 AU/l 1      
≥21 AU/l 0.23 (0.03–1.79) 0.160    
  1. *Significance was determined using a Cox proportional hazard model. CI confidence interval, ULN upper limit of normal