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Table 1 Patient background

From: Dexmedetomidine is safe and reduces the additional dose of midazolam for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in very elderly patients

  DEX group (n = 62) Conventional group (n = 87) P-value
Age 85.2 (81–94) 85.4 (80–99) 0.30
Sex (M/F) 39/23 30/57 0.13
BMI (kg/m2) 21.1 19.7 0.08
Comorbidity
 Ischemic heart disease 15 23 0.85
 Chronic heart failure 28 34 0.50
 Arrhythmia 22 23 0.28
NYHA classification
 No cardiovascular disease 34 53 0.50
 Class I 25 32 0.73
  ≥ Class II 3 2 0.65
Diagnosis
 Biliary stone 40 44 0.10
 Biliary cancer 20 38 0.18
 Others 2 5 1.0
Procedure
 EST 21 23 0.37
 EPBD 12 8 0.43
 ENBD 10 14 1.0
 Biliary stent 24 42 0.31
Procedure time (min, mean ± SD) 45.0 ± 30.1 48.5 ± 31.2 0.94
  1. EST endoscopic sphincterotomy, EPBD endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, ENBD endoscopic nasobiliary drainage