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Table 1 Demographic and biochemical characteristics of the study participants (N = 463)

From: Macrocytic anemia is associated with the severity of liver impairment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis: a retrospective cross-sectional study

Variable Macrocytic anemia Normocytic anemia Microcytic anemia P value
Number of subjects 123 304 36  
Mean corpuscular volume, fL 102.7 ± 2.6 91.2 ± 5.1 74.2 ± 4.6†¥ < 0.001
Age, years 56.1 ± 7.6 53.9 ± 7.1 51.8 ± 6.2 0.002
Male, n(%) 78(63.4) 191(62.8) 25(69.4) 0.738
Drinking, n(%) 24(19.5) 74(24.3) 13(36.1) 0.118
Smoking, n(%) 48(39.0) 107(35.2) 15(41.7) 0.618
Diabetes, n(%) 10(8.1) 39(12.8) 9(25.0) 0.026
Hypertension, n(%) 14(11.3) 36(11.8) 4(11.1) 0.985
Hemoglobin, g/L
 > 90 97(78.9) 230(75.7) 10(27.8)†¥ < 0.001
 60–90 21(17.1) 63(20.7) 20(55.6)†¥ < 0.001
 < 60 5(4.1) 11(3.6) 6(16.7)†¥ 0.002
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 2.4 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.8 0.012
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 117.9 ± 17.6 117.8 ± 15.2 113.8 ± 13.8 0.350
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 72.6 ± 11.7 73.4 ± 10.0 70.9 ± 8.6 0.354
Bilirubin, mg/dL 3.4 ± 3.4 2.6 ± 3.2 1.8 ± 3.4 0.011
Creatinine, mg/dL 0.8 ± 0.8 0.7 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.4 0.147
INR 1.5 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.1 0.006
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 123.6 ± 54.5 126.9 ± 43.4 130.3 ± 39.1 0.686
Albumin 27.0 ± 4.7 29.1 ± 4.7 31.7 ± 4.8†¥ < 0.001
AST 78.3 ± 147.3 84.2 ± 196.6 41.7 ± 39.5 0.394
ALT 45.3 ± 42.4 59.4 ± 114.3 29.3 ± 31.8 0.113
ALP 122.9 ± 55.5 106.4 ± 61.1 85.2 ± 32.7 0.001
MELD score 10.8 ± 6.6 8.0 ± 5.5 6.3 ± 5.1 < 0.001
Complications, n(%)
 UGB 6(4.9) 34(11.2) 5(13.9) 0.093
 SBP 36(29.3) 75(24.7) 3(8.3) 0.037
 HE 14(11.4) 22(7.2) 3(8.3) 0.377
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or numbers (percentage)
  2. INR international normalized ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, MELD model for end stage liver disease, UGB upper gastrointestinal bleeding, SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, HE hepatic encephalopathy
  3. P indicates the difference among the three groups. Indicates significance (P < 0.05) compared to macrocytic anemia; ¥Indicates significance (P < 0.05) compared to normocytic anemia