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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors predicting distant metastases

From: Predictors of distant metastasis on exploration in patients with potentially resectable pancreatic cancer

   Total n = 235 NM n = 173 WM n = 62 Univariate analysis Multivariate analysisa
p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI)
Age > 62 115 95 20 0.003 1 < 0.001 1
  ≤62 120 78 42   2.55 (1.39, 4.71)   3.97 (1.87, 8.42)
Sex Female 84 68 16 0.057 1 0.011 1
  Male 151 105 46   1.86 (0.98, 3.55)   2.79 (1.26, 6.19)
Pain No 85 67 18 0.174 1   
  Yes 150 106 44   1.50 (0.82, 2.90)   
Jaundice No 162 112 50 0.022 1   
  Yes 73 61 12   0.44 (0.22, 0.89)   
Weight loss No 135 103 32 0.280 1   
  Yes 100 70 30   1.37 (0.77, 2.47)   
Smoking No 187 139 48 0.624 1   
  Yes 48 34 14   1.19 (0.59, 2.41)   
Drinking No 197 141 56 0.112 1   
  Yes 38 32 6   0.47 (0.19, 1.19)   
Hypertension No 71 51 20 0.683 1   
  Yes 164 122 42   1.14 (0.61, 2.13)   
Diabetes No 199 148 51 0.538 1   
  Yes 36 25 11   1.28 (0.59, 2.78)   
Interval between imaging and surgery ≤7 170 123 47   1   
7–14 48 39 9 0.213 0.60 (0.27, 1.34)   
≥14 17 11 6 0.461 1.49 (0.52, 4.31)   
Tumor size < 4.0 96 92 4 < 0.001 1 < 0.001 1
  ≥4.0 139 81 58   16.47 (5.73, 47.36)   16.02 (5.31, 48.30)
Tumor location Head 174 134 40 0.048 1   
  Body/tail 61 39 22   1.88 (1.01, 3.55)   
ALT ≥125 71 64 7 < 0.001 1 < 0.001 1
  < 125 164 109 55   4.61 (1.98, 10.74)   6.19 (2.26, 16.92)
AST ≥ 85 75 64 11 0.006 1   
  < 85 160 109 51   2.72 (1.32, 5.60)   
TBil ≥75 78 65 13 0.019 1   
  < 75 157 108 49   2.27 (1.14, 4.50)   
DBil ≥50 75 61 14 0.069 1   
  < 50 160 112 48   1.87 (0.95, 3.66)   
ALB ≥40 124 89 35 0.498 1   
  < 40 111 84 27   0.82 (0.46, 1.47)   
AFP < 3.0 153 111 42 0.612 1   
  ≥3.0 82 62 20   0.85 (0.46, 1.57)   
CA19–9 < 385 144 115 29 0.007 1 0.015 1
  ≥385 91 58 33   2.26 (1.25, 4.07)   2.49 (1.19, 5.21)
CEA < 9 183 145 38 < 0.001 1   
  ≥9 52 28 24   3.53 (1.87, 6.67)   
  1. NM, No metastases; WM, with metastases
  2. aA multivariable model was constructed by a backward stepwise method