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Table 5 Comprehensive comparison of 14 studies on EOPC, including our study (first column)

From: Demographic, clinical, and pathological features of early onset pancreatic cancer patients

  Ntala C 2018, RLH, UK Piciucchi M 2016, Italy [7] Tingstedt B 2011, Sweden [5] Luttges J 2003, Germany [8] Bergmann F 2006, Germany [9] Duffy A 2009, USA [10] He J 2013, USA [12]
Length of the study in years 11y (2004–2015) 7y (2006–2013) 15y (1993–2008) 26y (1973–1999) 2006 13y (1995–2008) 34y (1975–2009)
DEMOGRAPHIC
 No. EOPC (%) 35 (9.5%) 25 (8.5%) 33 (5.7%) 10 (2.3%) 7 cases 136 (4.4%) 75 (7.9%)
 Age included in study (range) ≤50y (33–50) ≤50y ≤50y (30–50) ≤39 (10-39y) ≤40y (35–40) ≤45y (20–45) ≤45y (31–45)
 Male 71% (p = 0.043) 68.0% 61.0% (p = 0.02) 100.0% 0 54.0% 56.0%
 White 37% (p = 0.002)       89.0%
 Black 9.0%       4.0%
 Other 31.0%       7.0%
RISK FACTORS
 Smokers 31.0% 56%* (p = 0.001) 73.0%   71.4% 37.0% 37.0%
 Use of alcohol 26.0% 36.0% 21.0%     
 Obesity (BMI > 30) 6.0% mean BMI = 27 9.0%     
 History of CP 14.0% 0.0% 12.0%   14.3% 13.0%  
 History of diabetes 23.0% 4.0% (p = 0.00001) 3.0%     
 Family history of cancer (1st degree relative) 11.4% 48.0%    71.4% 5.1%  
 Family history of pancreatic cancer (1st degree relative) 0.0% 8.0% 3.0%   0 2.2%  
SYMPTOMS AT PRESENTATION
 New onset diabetes 6.0% 4.0% 21.0%     
 Weight loss 54.3% 52.0% 55.0%     33.0%
 Jaundice 62.8% 16.0% (p = 0.006) 61.0%     45.0%
 Abdominal pain 45.7% 68.0% (p = 0.06) 91.0% (p = 0.001^)     32.0% (p = 0.06)
PATHOLOGY
 Location-Head 77.0% 64.0% (p = 0.03) 79.0%   71.40%   
 Location-Body (B + T) 23%   12.0%     
 Location-Tail    9.0%   28.60%   
 G1 - Well differentiated 5.7%   20.0% 10.0% 57.2%   
 G2 - Moderately differentiated 45.7%   45.0% 45% 42.8%   
 G3 - Poorly differentiated 34.3% 61.0% 25.0% 14%    
 Perineural invasion 34.3%       64.0%
 Localised/Resectable 22.9% (p = 0.015) 16.0% 18.0%    25.7% 32.0%
 Locally advanced 54.0% 36.0% 27.0% (p = 0.005)    20.1% 68.0%
 Metastatic 22.9% 48.0% 52.0% (p = 0.001)   14.3% 50.0%  
TREATMENT
 Resected cases 22.9% (p = 0.015) 16.0% 27.0% (p = 0.01)   71.4% 25.7% (R0) 69.0%
 Palliative chemo/radiotherapy 60.0% (p = 0.008) 48.0% (p = 0.003) 45.0%/36.0% (p = ns/0.002)   28.6%   
 Supportive treatment 17.1%       
SURVIVAL (months)
 Median OS 12 11 5.7    12.3 19
 Median OS (resectable cases) 25      41.8  
Stage associated survival (%; (OS, months))
 Stage I + II 22.8% (25)      25.7% (41.8) (p = 0.0001) I + IIA:32% (27)
 Stage III 54.3% (11) 36.0% (11)     20% (15.3) IIB + III;68% (16)
 Stage IV 17.1% (6) 48.0% (7)     50% (7.2)  
Survival rate
 1 year survival rate
 5 years survival rate       3.3% 24.00%
 10 years survival rate        17.00%
 5 years survival rate I-IIA        42.00%
 5 years survival rate IIB-III        16.00%
  Beeghly-Fadiel A 2016, USA [6] McWilliams RR 2017, USA [14] Ohmoto A 2017, Japan [37] Jiang Q-L 2017, China [13] Lin J-C 2011, China [4] Soliman AS 2002, Egypt [41] Raissouni S 2012, Morocco [36]
Length of the study in years 25y (1988–2013) 11y (2000–2011) 11y (2002–2013) 16y (1999–2014) 19y (1990–2009) 5y (1995–2000) 5y (2005–2010)
DEMOGRAPHIC
 No. EOPC (%) 118 (8.4%) 226 (11.5%) 17 (1.87%) 156 (8.7%) 25 (10.2%) 165 (22.6%) 32 (17%)
 Age included in study (range) ≤49y ≤44y ≤40y (21–40) ≤45y (17–45) ≤49y ≤50y ≤45y (28–45)
 Male 60.2% 54.0% 64.7% 75% (p = 0.006)    65.0%
 White 86.3%       
 Black 11.10%       
 Other 2.60%       
RISK FACTORS
 Smokers   35% and 6%§ 58.8% 34.6% (p = 0.024) 44.0%   12.5%
 Use of alcohol   11%†   35.3% 32.0%   
 Obesity (BMI > 30)   19%   (BMI ≥ 28) 16.7%    
 History of CP   1.0%    16.0%   
 History of diabetes   3.0%   11.5% 4.0%   6.0%
 Family history of cancer (1st degree relative)    29.4% 17.3%    
 Family history of pancreatic cancer (1st degree relative) 17.5% 8.0% 5.8% 3.8% 8.0%   
SYMPTOMS AT PRESENTATION
 New onset diabetes     11.5% 4.0%   
 Weight loss     46.2% 48.0%   43.0%
 Jaundice     18.9% 52.0%   68.0%
 Abdominal pain     62.1% 72.0%   87.5%
PATHOLOGY
 Location-Head 67.0%   52.90% 69.90%    75.0%
 Location-Body 12.3%   (B + T) 47.1% (B + T) 30%    12.5%
 Location-Tail 12.3%       12.5%
 G1 - Well differentiated     3.8%%    
 G2 - Moderately differentiated     14.7%%    
 G3 - Poorly differentiated     26.3%%    
 Perineural invasion        
 Localised/Resectable 40.0%    28.8% 40.0%   18.7%
 Locally advanced 16.0%    34.0%    21.8%
 Metastatic 44.0%    37.2% 52.0%   59.3%
TREATMENT
 Resected cases 23.3%   23.20% 20.5% 40.0% 33.1% 18.7%
 Palliative chemo/radiotherapy 38.9%   70% 47.4%   30.7% 26.2%
 Supportive treatment 37.9%      14.6% 37.5%
SURVIVAL (months)
 Median OS 9.3 (p = 0.045)   6.7 8 5.6   6.6
 Median OS in resectable    19.6 19 10.3   32
Stage associated survival (%; (OS, months))
 Stage I + II 6% + 34%   23.2% (19.6) 9% (19)    18.8% (32)
 Stage III 16.0%   23.5% (18.2) 53.8% (9)    21.8% (7.9)
 Stage IV 44.0%   52.9% (5) 37.2% (5)    59% (6.4)
Survival rate
 1 year survival rate    37.5%   28% (40% in resected cases)   
 5 years survival rate      4% (10% in resected cases)   
 10 years survival rate
 5 years survival rate I-IIA
 5 years survival rate IIB-III
  1. *Smoking starting age 19.8y (p value:0.001); ^ value for matched controls; § % for ≤19 and ≥ 40 packets/year; † > 26 g; Cp = chronic pancreatitis; B + T = body + tail; y = years; p = p-value referring to comparison with the older PDAC population (where data available)