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Table 1 The baseline characteristics of the patients enrolled in this study

From: Tolvaptan treatment improves survival of cirrhotic patients with ascites and hyponatremia

Index Tolvaptan
(n = 169)
Placebo
(n = 61)
P value
Age (mean ± SD) 54.6 ± 8.58 51.6 ± 10.71 0.03
Gender (F/M) 33/136 12/49 0.98
Etiology of cirrhosis (n,%)
 Hepatitis B 102 (60.3) 41 (67.3) 0.03
 Hepatitis C 9 (5.3) 3 (4.9)  
 Alcohol liver disease 33 (19.5) 11 (18.0)  
 PBC 2 (1.2) 0 (0)  
 Mixeda 13 (7.7) 5 (8.2)  
Cryptogenic 4 (2.4) 0 (0)  
 Othersb 6 (3.6) 1 (1.6)  
Child-Pugh grade (n, %)
 A (5–6) 2 (1.2) 1 (1.6) 0.36
 B (7–9) 113 (66.8) 45 (73.8)  
 C (10–15) 54 (32.0) 15 (24.6)  
Edema of lower limbs (n, %)
 No 123 (72.8) 43 (70.5) 0.86
 Yes 46 (27.2) 18 (29.5)  
Serum sodium (mmol/L)    0.56
 Median 135.8 135.0  
 (Min, Max) (117.2, 146.3) (124.8, 142.7)  
Normal serum sodium (n, %)
(≥ 135 and < 150 mmol/L)
100 (59.2) 32 (52.5)  
Mild hyponatremia (n, %)
(≥ 130 and < 135 mmol/L)
44 (26.0) 21 (34.4)  
Middle hyponatremia (n, %)
(≥ 125 and < 130 mmol/L)
19 (11.2) 7 (11.5)  
Severe hyponatremia (n, %)
(< 125 mmol/L)
6 (3.6) 1 (1.6)  
Serum potassium (mmol/L) 4.2 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.7 0.98
Serum urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.8 5.6 ± 0.8 0.93
  1. aMixed etiology: Hepatitis B + alcoholic hepatitis, hepatitis B + primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), hepatitis C + alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis+ PBC. PBC:primary biliary cirrhosis
  2. bOther etiology: 3 drug-induced hepatitis, 2 cardiac disease, 2 autoimmune liver disease