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Table 5 Summary of 20 studies on the fecal carriage of E. coli in community children from different countries

From: Fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by community children in southern Taiwan

Country (published years) First author Study population Setting Sample size Prevalence of resistance
Houston, Tex USA (1987) [23] Reves RR Children Cross-section, day-care centers 79 trimethoprim: 37%;
ampicillin: 70%
Bolivia (1998) [24] Bartoloni A aged 6–72 months healthy children; community-based 296 Ampicillin: 97%
TMP/SMX: 94%,
Cephalothin:10%
Tetracycline: 92%
Ciprofloxacin: 0%
Shanghai, China (1998) [25] Zhang XL Group A: Children of 5–6 years
Group B: Children of 10–11 years
A: Nursery school
B: Primary school
A: 30
B: 54
A:
Ampicillin: 93.3%
Trimethoprim: 100%
Ciprofloxacin: 43.3%
B:
Ampicillin: 100%
Trimethoprim: 100%
Ciprofloxacin: 53.7%
Mexican (2003) [26] Zaidi MB healthy children (1 month to 12 years) day care centers or kindergartens 276 nalidixic acid: 54%
ciprofloxacin: 18.5%
Bolivia and Peru (2006) [27] Bartoloni A children (aged 6 to 72 months) Health children in four urban area 3174 Ampicillin: 95%,
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: 94%
nalidixic acid: 35%
gentamicin: 21%
ciprofloxacin: 18%
ceftriaxone: 0.1%
amikacin: 0.1%
Germany (2007) [28] Lietzau S children aged 6 months to 4 years regular health screening or an acute infection 884 Ampicillin: 16.6%
amoxicillineclavulanic acid: 8%
cotrimoxazole: 8.7%
Nalidixic acid: 2.0%
Levofloxacin: 0.4%
India (2009) [29] Seidman JC aged 5–10 years primary school children 119 Cefazoline: 6.7% (8/119)
ampicillin: 38.7% (46/119)
cotrimoxazole: 37.0% (44/119)
Ciprofloxacin: 12.6% (15/119)
Cefotaxime: 4.2% (5/119)
Senegal (2009) [30] Ruppé E aged 1 to 11 years healthy children 20 ESBL-producing: 10%
Portugal (2009) [31] Guimaraes B Aged 1 to 14 years healthy children 112 ESBL-positive: 2.7%
Vietnam (2012) [32] Dyar OJ child aged 6–60 months rural children (1% with diarrhea) 818 Ampicillin: 65%
co-trimoxazole: 68%
ciprofloxacin: < 1%
Guinea-Bissau (2012) [33] Isendahl J children < 5 years of age fever or tachycardia attending a pediatric emergency ward 408 ESBL-producing E coli: 20.34% (83/408)
Sweden (2013) [34] Kaarme J Children (range 11–66 months)
66 months
preschool 313 ESBL-producing E coli: 2.6% (8/313)
Libyan (2014) [35] Ahmed SF children aged from 3 to 12 years Diarrhea attending outpatient clinics 134 Ampicillin: 78.4%
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic: 64.2%
TMP/SMZ: 61.9%
Cefotaxime: 20.2%
Ciprofloxacin: 5.2%
ESBL-producing E coli: 13.4% (18/134)
France (2014) [36] Blanc V Children (3 and 40 months) Day-care center 419 ESBL-producing E coli: 6.4%
Spain (2014) [37] Fernández-Reyes M children at the ages of 8, 12, and 16 months healthy children in the community 125 ESBL-producing E coli: 24% of 125 children and 10.7% of the 318 fecal samples
Lao People’s Democratic Republic (2015) [38] Stoesser N children ≤6 years of age preschool childcare facilities 397 ESBL-producing E coli: 19.65% (78/397)
Amoxicillin/clavulanate: 10.33% (41/397)
Co-trimoxazole: 14.61% (58/397)
Cefotaxime: 19.4% (77/397)
Ofloxacin: 3.78% (15/397)