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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the 149 patients who underwent ESD

From: Splash M-knife versus Flush Knife BT in the technical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer: a propensity score matching analysis

  Total n = 149 ESD-M n = 73 ESD-F n = 76 p value ASD
Age (years)      
 Mean ± SD 73.3 ± 8.6 73.0 ± 8.4 73.6 ± 8.7 0.67 0.0702
 Median (range) 74 (52–91) 74 (52–91) 74 (52–90) 0.67§  
Gender     0.4  
 Male 97 (65.1%) 45 (61.6%) 52 (68.4%)   0.143
 Female 52 (34.9%) 28 (38.4%) 24 (31.6%)   0.143
Underlying disease     0.49  
 None 132 (88.6%) 66 (90.4%) 66 (86.8%)   0.113
Cardiomyopathy or cirrhosis 17 (11.4%) 7 (9.6%) 10 (13.2%)   0.143
Antithrombotic drugs     0.091  
 None or discontinuation 143 (96.0%) 72 (98.6%) 71 (93.4%)   0.268
 Continuation 6 (4.0%) 1 (1.4%) 5 (6.6%)   0.268
Location of lesions     0.055  
 Upper 24 (16.1%) 12 (16.4%) 12 (15.8%)   0.0163
 Middle 54 (36.2%) 33 (45.2%) 21 (27.6%)   0.372
 Lower 71 (47.7%) 28 (38.4%) 43 (56.6%)   0.371
Position of lesions     0.44  
 Lesser curvature 60 (40.2%) 30 (41.1%) 30 (39.5%)   0.0326
 Greater curvature 38 (25.5%) 22 (30.1%) 16 (21.1%)   0.207
 Anterior wall 29 (19.5%) 11 (15.1%) 18 (23.7%)   0.219
 Posterior wall 22 (14.8%) 10 (13.7%) 12 (15.8%)   0.0592
Morphology     0.27  
 Protruding 55 (36.9%) 30 (41.1%) 25 (32.9%)   0.170
 Flat 1 (0.7%) 1 (1.4%) 0 (0%)   0.169
 Depressed 93 (63.4%) 42 (57.5%) 51 (67.1%)   0.199
Histology     0.68  
 Differentiated 144 (96.6%) 70 (95.9%) 74 (97.4%)   0.0834
 Undifferentiated 5 (3.4%) 3 (4.1%) 2 (2.6%)   0.0834
Lesion size (mm)      
 Mean ± SD 16.6 ± 10.0 17.2 ± 9.3 16.1 ± 10.6 0.49 0.110
 Median (range) 15 (3–77) 15 (3–40) 14 (4–77) 0.27§  
Specimen size (mm)      
 Mean ± SD 39.0 ± 12.0 39.8 ± 11.6 38.2 ± 12.4 0.42 0.133
 Median (range) 36 (17–110) 40 (17–75) 35 (20–110) 0.35§  
Depth     0.68  
 pT1a 132 (88.6%) 63 (86.3%) 69 (90.8%)   0.0724
 pT1b1 7 (4.7%) 4 (5.5%) 3 (3.9%)   0.0757
 pT1b2 10 (6.7%) 6 (8.2%) 4 (5.3%)   0.116
Presence of ulceration 17 (11.4%) 10 (13.7%) 7 (9.2%) 0.45 0.142
Operator level     < 0.001  
 Experts 70 (47.0%) 47 (64.4%) 23 (30.3%)   0.727
Electrosurgical unit     0.009  
 VIO 300D 128 (85.9%) 57 (78.1%) 71 (93.4%)   0.450
 ICC200 21 (14.1%) 16 (21.9%) 5 (6.6%)   0.450
  1. ESD endoscopic submucosal dissection, ESD-M endoscopic submucosal dissection with Splash-M knife, ESD-F endoscopic submucosal dissection with Flush Knife BT, SD standard deviation ASD absolute standardized difference
  2. p value was calculated using the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test for categorical data
  3. p value was calculated using the t test and the Mann-Whitney U test § for continuous data
  4. pT1a, tumor invasion is within mucosa; pT1b1, tumor invasion is within 0.5 mm of the muscularis mucosae; pT1b2, tumor invasion is 0.5 mm or deeper into the muscularis mucosae