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Table 3 Factors affecting the recurrent biliary complications (univariate analysis)

From: Gallbladder function predicts subsequent biliary complications in patients with common bile duct stones after endoscopic treatment?

Factors Risk ratio (95% CI) P
Gender (male/female) 1.53 (0.60–3.89) 0.369
Mean age 1.00 (0.99–1.03) 0.860
Smoking (yes/no) 2.19(0.96–5.01) 0.062
Alcohol drinking (yes/no) 2.49 (1.02–6.05) 0.045
Concomitant diseases
 Chronic lung disease (yes/no) 1.70(0.40–7.27) 0.473
 Cerebrovascular diseases (yes/no) 1.68(0.39–7.18) 0.482
 Renal failure (yes/no) 3.19(1.09–9.39) 0.035
 Cancer diseases (yes/no) 1.52(0.45–5.11) 0.501
 Liver disease (yes/no) 2.35(0.79–6.98) 0.123
 Diabetes mellitus (yes/no) 1.03(0.38–2.27) 0.958
JPD (yes/no) 1.05(0.45–2.42) 0.888
Gallbladder stones(Yes/No) 8.83(1.19–65.49) 0.033
Mean CBD diameter 2.26(0.83–6.180 0.113
Mean balloon diameter for EPBDa 3.10(0.50–1900) 0.222
Mechanical lithotripsy (yes/no) 1.06(0.25–4.58) 0.935
Brown pigment stones (yes/no) 1.16(0.47–2.84) 0.748
Sessions for bile duct clearance(1/> 1) 0.32(0.11–0.93) 0.037
Non-visualization of gallbladder in ERCP(yes/no) 1.96(0.73–5.29) 0.184
Fatty meal sonographyb
 Fasting volume 1.01(0.99–1.03) 0.596
 Residual volume 1.02(0.98–1.06) 0.324
 Ejection fraction 1.00(0.99–1.01) 0.986
 Ejection fraction at 30 min (≥50% vs < 50%) 0.70(0.31–1.59) 0.400
  1. JPD: juxtapapillary diverticulum, CBD: common bile duct, EPBD: endoscopic papillary balloon dilation. ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  2. aOnly the 113 patients who received EPBD were included
  3. b8 patients with small contracted gallbladder or gas block were excluded