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Table 3 Clinical characteristics and ultrasound findings in the study subjects with chronic liver disease, by aetiology

From: Unexplained chronic liver disease in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Variable All patients (n = 150) Aetiology known (n = 67) Aetiology unknown (n = 83)
Symptoms
 Abdominal swelling 128 (85.3) 51 (76.1) 77 (92.8)*
 Epigastric pain 12 (80.0) 56 (83.6) 64 (77.1)
 Weight loss 119 (79.3) 54 (80.6) 65 (78.3)
 Fever 77 (51.3) 35 (52.2) 42 (50.6)
 Arthralgia/myalgia 75 (50.3)a 33 (49.3) 42 (51.2)a
 Nausea 69 (46.3)a 30 (45.5)a 39 (47.0)
 Diarrhoea 64 (42.7) 27 (40.3) 37 (44.6)
 Haematemesis 53 (35.3) 27 (40.3) 26 (31.3)
 History of jaundice 47 (31.3) 24 (35.8) 23 (27.7)
Clinical findings
 Ascites 138 (92.0) 60 (89.6) 78 (94.0)
 Splenomegaly 99 (66.0) 48 (71.6) 51 (61.4)
 Jaundice 28 (18.7) 16 (23.9) 12 (14.5)
 Caput medusae 25 (16.7) 8 (11.9) 17 (20.5)
 Hepatic encephalopathy 16 (10.7) 7 (10.4) 9 (10.8)
 Traditional scarring/burning 101 (67.3) 46 (68.7) 55 (66.3)
Ultrasound findings
 Ascites 138 (92.0) 60 (89.6) 78 (94.0)
 Smooth liver surface 4 (2.7) 3 (4.5) 1 (1.2)
 Mild uneven liver surface 44 (29.3) 15 (22.4) 29 (34.9)
 Nodular liver surface 102 (68.0) 49 (73.1) 53 (63.9)
 Heterogeneous echotexture 62 (41.3) 22 (32.8) 40 (48.2)
 Coarse echotexture 87 (58.0) 44 (65.7) 43 (51.8)
 Hepatic steatosis 1 (0.7) 1 (1.5) 0
 Periportal fibrosis 21 (14.0) 9 (13.4) 12 (14.5)
In-hospital death 9 (6.0)a 4 (6.0) 5 (6.1)a
  1. Data are presented as number (%) or as median (interquartile range) unless otherwise noted
  2. aOne observation missing
  3. *p < 0.05; significance of the difference between the aetiology known/unknown group