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Table 3 Primary and secondary end points

From: Double-catheter lavage combined with percutaneous flexible endoscopic debridement for infected pancreatic necrosis failed to percutaneous catheter drainage

Outcome Open necrosectomy after PCD(n = 12) Percutaneous debridement after PCD
(n = 15)
Risk ratio
(95% CI)
P value
Primary composite end point: major complications or death - no. (%)a 11 (92%) 8 (53%) 1.71 (1.04–2.84) 0.04
Secondary end points     
Major complication - no. (%)     
New-onset organ failure 7 (58%) 2 (13%) 4.38 (1.11–17.32) 0.04
Multiple-organ failure 3 (25%) 0   0.08
Intestinal fistula 6 (50%) 7 (47%) 1.07 (0.49–2.34) 0.86
Intra-abdominal bleeding 3 (25%) 1 (7%) 3.75 (0.45–31.62) 0.29
Stress ulcer with bleeding 2 (17%) 0   0.19
Other outcome     
Intestinal obstruction 2 (17%) 0   0.19
Cerebral infarction 1 (8%) 0   0.44
Arrhythmia 0 1 (7%)   0.27
Death - no. (%) 2 (17%) 0   0.19
Postoperative ICU admission time     0.02
Median 17 0   
IQR 7–35 0–9   
Days in hospital     0.25
Median 62 52   
IQR 40–73 41–60   
  1. aMultiple events in the same patient were considered as one end point