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Table 3 Factors related to GERD development as the outcome variable by univariate analysis and multiple regression analysis (N = 505)

From: Dietary habits and obesity indices in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a comparative cross-sectional study

Variable B Univariate OR Adjusted OR
  95% CI   95% CI
OR Lower Upper OR Lower Upper
Age (years)
  < 35a −0.30 1   1  
  ≥ 35 1.17 0.82 1.67 0.734 0.466 1.15
Gender
 Mena 0.02 1   1  
 Women 1.45 0.99 2.13 1.02 0.53 1.97
Marital status
 Singlea 0.19 1   1  
 Married 1.57* 1.04 2.36 1.21 0.75 1.97
Education (years)
  < 12 years schoolinga −0.59 1   1  
  ≥ 12 years schooling 0.53* 0.36 0.77 0.55* 0.33 0.91
Job
 Unemployeda   1   1  
 Self-employed 0.07 0.77 0.49 1.22 1.08 0.52 2.22
 Employee 0.19 0.72 0.43 1.20 1.21 0.57 2.53
Smoking or substance abuse
 Noa 0.33 1   1  
 Yes 1.21 0.70 2.10 1.40 0.76 2.56
Physical activity (h/wk)
  < 2a −0.38 1   1  
  ≥ 2 0.53* 0.30 0.94 0.67 0.34 1.32
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 30a 0.27 1   1  
  ≥ 30 1.77* 1.11 2.81 1.32 0.76 2.29
WC (cm)
 Men <102; Women <88a 0.63 1   1  
 Men ≥102; Women ≥88 2.09* 1.46 3.01 1.89* 1.18 3.01
Numbers of meals consumed daily (meals/d)
  < 3a −0.16 1   1  
  ≥ 3 0.91 0.63 1.31 0.85 0.56 1.27
Time interval between the last meal and sleep (hours)
  < 2a −0.16 1   1  
  ≥ 2 0.80 0.56 1.15 0.84 0.57 1.24
Resting immediately after the main meals
 Noa 0.004 1   1  
 Yes 0.89 0.61 1.30 1.004 0.66 1.51
Large portion-size meals (times/wk)
  < 2a 0.32 1   1  
  ≥ 2 1.39 0.97 1.98 1.38 0.94 2.04
Fast foods intake (times/wk)
  < 2a −0.13 1   1  
  ≥ 2 0.71 0.36 1.39 0.87 0.42 1.82
Spicy foods intake (times/wk)
  < 2a −0.02 1   1  
  ≥ 2 1.03 0.72 1.46 0.97 0.66 1.45
Chocolate intake (times/wk)
  < 2a 0.19 1   1  
  ≥ 2 1.14 0.79 1.65 1.21 0.80 1.82
Tea intake
 Nonea   1   1  
 Just before meals 0.14 1.43 0.68 3.02 1.16 0.51 2.60
 Just after meals −0.15 0.97 0.46 2.06 0.85 0.37 1.94
 Between meals −0.03 1.17 0.59 2.31 0.96 0.45 2.04
Coffee intake
 Nonea   1   1  
 Just before/ after meals −0.53 0.37 0.11 1.25 0.58 0.15 2.18
 Between meals −0.19 0.66 0.26 1.67 0.82 0.29 2.3
Citrus intake
 Nonea   1   1  
 Just before/after meals 0.35 0.98 0.55 1.76 1.42 0.73 2.76
 Between meals 0.80 1.69* 1.04 2.73 2.22* 1.30 3.81
Carbonated drinks intake
 Nonea   1   1  
 Within meals −0.07 0.95 0.65 1.38 0.92 0.61 1.39
 Between meals −0.57 0.56 0.31 1.03 0.56 0.28 1.10
  1. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aReference group. *Significant at the level of p < 0.05