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Table 2 The association between dietary habits and GERD in study participants

From: Dietary habits and obesity indices in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a comparative cross-sectional study

Variable Total N = 505 GERD N = 285 Non- GERD N = 220 P-value*
N % N % N %
Numbers of meals consumed daily(meals/d)
  < 3 185 36.6 107 37.5 78 35.5 0.62
  ≥ 3 320 63.4 178 62.5 142 64.5
Time interval between the last meal and sleep (hours)
  < 2 247 48.9 146 51.2 101 45.9 0.23
  ≥ 2 258 51.1 139 48.8 119 54.1
Resting immediately after the main meals
 Yes 335 66.3 186 65.3 149 67.7 0.56
 No 170 33.7 99 34.7 71 32.3
Large portion-size meals (times/wk)
  < 2 236 46.7 123 43.2 113 51.4 0.06
  ≥ 2 269 53.3 162 56.8 107 48.6
Fast foods intake (times/wk)
  < 2 468 92.7 267 93.7 201 91.4 0.32
  ≥ 2 37 7.3 18 6.3 19 8.6
Spicy foods intake (times/wk)
  < 2 271 53.7 152 53.3 119 54.1 0.86
  ≥ 2 234 46.3 133 46.7 101 45.9
Chocolate intake (times/wk)
  < 2 324 64.2 179 62.8 145 65.9 0.47
  ≥ 2 181 35.8 106 37.2 75 34.1
Tea intake
 None 38 7.5 20 7 18 8.2 0.54
 Just before meals 109 21.6 67 23.5 42 19.1
 Just after meals 98 19.4 51 17.9 47 21.4
 Between meals 260 51.5 147 51.6 113 51.4
Coffee intake
 None 474 93.9 272 95.4 202 91.8 0.18
 Just before OR after meals 12 2.4 4 1.4 8 3.6
 Between meals 19 3.8 9 3.2 10 4.5
Citrus intake
 None 360 71.3 195 68.4 165 75 0.08
 Just before OR after meals 52 10.3 28 9.8 24 10.9
 Between meals 93 18.4 62 21.8 31 14.1
Carbonated drinks intake
 None 217 43 127 44.6 90 40.9 0.16
 Within meals 234 46.3 134 47 100 45.5
 Between meals 54 10.7 24 8.4 30 13.6
  1. *p-values was derived from Chi-square test