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Fig. 4 | BMC Gastroenterology

Fig. 4

From: Gut microbiota-mediated generation of saturated fatty acids elicits inflammation in the liver in murine high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis

Fig. 4

Migratory macrophages in the liver produce TNF-α in response to palmitic acid. At week 17. All three groups of mice were sacrificed, and liver mononuclear cells were isolated. a Representative fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) plot for liver macrophages. CD45.2+7-AAD liver mononuclear cells were further expanded by CD11b and F4/80. F4/80highCD11blow resident macrophages (square area) and F4/80highCD11bhigh migratory macrophages (circle area) are shown. b The absolute number of resident and migratory macrophages in the liver. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (N = 7). *P < 0.05 by the Tukey’s test. c Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 level in plasma (N = 3). (D) Isolated liver CD11b+ macrophages were stimulated with palmitic acid (PA) (5.12*10−3 mg/mL) for 20 h. The transcription of Tnfa mRNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The expression of Tnfa mRNA was normalized to that of GAPDH. Data are presented as mean ± SEM (N = 3). *P < 0.05 by the Mann-Whitney U-test

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