Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Associations between selected dietary factors and GBD (HRa and 95% CI) by race/ethnicity

From: Sex and ethnic/racial-specific risk factors for gallbladder disease

  NH-White N = 2600 African American N = 2469 Native Hawaiian N = 511 Japanese American N = 3133 Latino US born N = 2398 Latino Mexico/SA born N = 2326
Dietary Fiber (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 9.0 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 9.0 – ≤ 11.6 0.91 (0.82–1.03) 0.90 (0.80–1.01) 0.84 (0.66–1.07) 1.04 (0.94–1.14) 1.11 (0.97–1.27) 0.98 (0.83–1.16)
 > 11.6 – ≤ 14.8 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.82 (0.73–0.93) 0.79 (0.60–1.03) 0.99 (0.89–1.10) 0.94 (0.82–1.08) 0.80 (0.68–0.94)
 > 14.8 0.75 (0.66–0.85) 0.78 (0.68–0.88) 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 0.85 (0.76–0.96) 0.89 (0.77–1.02) 0.78 (0.67–0.91)
P trend < .0001 < .0001 0.1166 0.0146 0.0033 < .0001
Total Vegetables (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 109.3 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 109.3 – ≤ 150.1 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.99 (0.89–1.10) 0.91 (0.70–1.18) 1.02 (0.92–1.13) 0.89 (0.79–1.00) 0.94 (0.82–1.09)
 > 150.1 – ≤ 202.6 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 1.02 (0.78–1.33) 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.91 (0.81–1.03) 0.92 (0.80–1.05)
 > 202.6 0.86 (0.76–0.97) 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 0.94 (0.71–1.23) 0.93 (0.83–1.04) 0.83 (0.74–0.94) 0.85 (0.74–0.97)
P trend 0.0024 0.0094 0.8386 0.1317 0.0079 0.0085
Total Fruits (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 78.9 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 78.9 – ≤ 145.9 0.85 (0.76–0.95) 0.83 (0.74–0.94) 1.03 (0.80–1.33) 0.93 (0.84–1.04) 1.08 (0.96–1.21) 0.89 (0.78–1.00)
 > 145.9 – ≤ 239.8 0.81 (0.72–0.91) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.96 (0.73–1.26) 0.94 (0.85–1.05) 1.02 (0.90–1.15) 0.90 (0.79–1.02)
 > 239.8 0.85 (0.76–0.96) 0.83 (0.74–0.94) 0.76 (0.57–1.02) 0.93 (0.84–1.04) 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 0.78 (0.69–0.88)
P trend 0.0076 0.0245 0.0586 0.3021 0.9962 0.0002
Red Meat (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 14.3 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 14.3 – ≤ 24.4 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.12 (1.00–1.27) 0.88 (0.66–1.18) 1.06 (0.96–1.18) 1.08 (0.94–1.23) 1.10 (0.97–1.25)
 > 24.4 – ≤ 36.1 1.18 (1.06–1.32) 1.08 (0.95–1.22) 0.91 (0.69–1.22) 1.15 (1.04–1.27) 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 1.09 (0.96–1.24)
 > 36.1 1.13 (1.00–1.28) 1.32 (1.17–1.49) 1.20 (0.91–1.58) 1.16 (1.04–1.30) 1.15 (1.01–1.30) 1.13 (1.00–1.28)
P trend 0.0100 < .0001 0.1033 0.0024 0.0545 0.0934
% Calories from Saturated Fat
 ≤ 7.1 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 7.1 – ≤ 8.9 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 1.16 (0.91–1.49) 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 1.08 (0.94–1.25)
 > 8.9 – ≤ 10.8 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 1.08 (0.95–1.23) 1.01 (0.77–1.32) 1.11 (1.00–1.23) 1.18 (1.02–1.36) 1.14 (0.99–1.30)
 > 10.8 1.13 (1.00–1.27) 1.18 (1.04–1.35) 1.06 (0.78–1.42) 1.09 (0.93–1.27) 1.20 (1.04–1.39) 1.27 (1.11–1.46)
P trend 0.0361 0.0039 0.9779 0.0452 0.0104 0.0003
Cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 77.8 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 77.8 – ≤ 101.7 1.05 (0.94–1.18) 1.09 (0.95–1.26) 0.94 (0.72–1.23) 1.09 (1.00–1.19) 1.09 (0.96–1.25) 1.04 (0.91–1.18)
 > 101.7 – ≤ 128.7 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 1.19 (1.04–1.36) 1.15 (0.88–1.50) 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.24 (1.10–1.41) 1.08 (0.96–1.23)
 > 128.7 1.18 (1.05–1.33) 1.20 (1.05–1.36) 1.30 (0.99–1.70) 1.10 (0.98–1.23) 1.16 (1.02–1.32) 1.14 (1.01–1.30)
P trend 0.0069 0.0043 0.0252 0.1768 0.0115 0.0271
% Calories from Carbohydrate
 ≤ 46.1 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 46.1 – ≤ 52.1 0.99 (0.88–1.10) 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 0.89 (0.66–1.20) 1.03 (0.89–1.19) 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 0.88 (0.78–1.00)
 > 52.1 – ≤ 58.2 0.94 (0.84–1.06) 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.92 (0.69–1.24) 1.00 (0.86–1.15) 1.01 (0.90–1.15) 0.84 (0.74–0.96)
 > 58.2 0.90 (0.80–1.03) 0.89 (0.78–1.01) 0.93 (0.69–1.26) 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 0.82 (0.71–0.93)
P trend 0.0891 0.0767 0.8459 0.2587 0.8483 0.0028
  1. aHR stratified by matching factors (birth year, ethnicity, study area, duration of Medicare enrollment) and adjusted for smoking-pack years (never, past < 20, past ≥ 20, current < 20, current ≥ 20), alcohol intake (0, < 24, 24- ≤ 48, > 48 ethanol g/day), body mass index (< 25, 25- < 30, 30+ kg/m2), diabetes (no/yes), calories, and education (≤ High School, some college, ≥ college graduate