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Table 4 Associations between selected dietary factors and GBD by sex

From: Sex and ethnic/racial-specific risk factors for gallbladder disease

  Men Women
  No. Cases HRa(95% CI) No. Cases HRa(95% CI)
Dietary Fiber (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 9.0 1723 1.00 (ref.) 1409 1.00 (ref.)
 > 9.0 – ≤ 11.6 1587 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 1912 0.96 (0.90–1.04)
 > 11.6 – ≤ 14.8 1300 0.91 (0.84–0.98) 2142 0.88 (0.81–0.94)
 > 14.8 1048 0.80 (0.74–0.88) 2316 0.81 (0.75–0.87)
P trend   < .0001   < .0001
Total Vegetables (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 109.3 1744 1.00 (ref.) 1569 1.00 (ref.)
 > 109.3 – ≤ 150.1 1582 1.00 (0.93–1.07) 1788 0.96 (0.89–1.03)
 > 150.1 – ≤ 202.6 1298 0.89 (0.82–0.96) 2084 0.96 (0.89–1.02)
 > 202.6 1034 0.85 (0.78–0.92) 2338 0.89 (0.83–0.95)
P trend   < .0001   0.0007
Total Fruits (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 78.9 1741 1.00 (ref.) 1591 1.00 (ref.)
 > 78.9 – ≤ 145.9 1558 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 1723 0.91 (0.84–0.97)
 > 145.9 – ≤ 239.8 1307 0.89 (0.82–0.96) 2128 0.93 (0.87–1.00)
 > 239.8 1052 0.93 (0.85–1.01) 2337 0.85 (0.80–0.91)
P trend   0.0216   <.0001
Red Meat (g/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 14.3 1022 1.00 (ref.) 2087 1.00 (ref.)
 > 14.3 – ≤ 24.4 1305 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 2057 1.08 (1.01–1.15)
 > 24.4 – ≤ 36.1 1528 1.08 (0.99–1.17) 1860 1.13 (1.06–1.21)
 > 36.1 1803 1.13 (1.04–1.23) 1775 1.23 (1.15–1.31)
P trend   0.0055   <.0001
% Calories from Saturated Fat
 ≤ 7.1 1269 1.00 (ref.) 1878 1.00 (ref.)
 > 7.1 – ≤ 8.9 1433 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 1875 1.02 (0.96–1.10)
 > 8.9 – ≤ 10.8 1423 1.09 (1.00–1.18) 1962 1.11 (1.04–1.19)
 > 10.8 1533 1.14 (1.04–1.24) 2064 1.20 (1.12–1.29)
P trend   0.0134   < .0001
Cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal/day)
 ≤ 77.8 1241 1.00 (ref.) 1925 1.00 (ref.)
 > 77.8 – ≤ 101.7 1383 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 1937 1.06 (0.99–1.13)
 > 101.7 – ≤ 128.7 1456 1.08 (1.00–1.17) 1966 1.14 (1.06–1.22)
 > 128.7 1578 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 1951 1.22 (1.14–1.31)
P trend   0.1823   < .0001
% Calories from Carbohydrate
 ≤ 46.1 1619 1.00 (ref.) 1676 1.00 (ref.)
 > 46.1 – ≤ 52.1 1494 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 1907 0.94 (0.88–1.01)
 > 52.1 – ≤ 58.2 1327 0.98 (0.90–1.06) 2083 0.91 (0.85–0.97)
 > 58.2 1218 0.99 (0.91–1.09) 2113 0.86 (0.80–0.93)
P trend   0.7258   < .0001
  1. aHR stratified by set number (defined by matching factors: birth year, sex, ethnicity, study area, duration of Medicare enrollment) and adjusted for smoking-pack years (never, past <20, past ≥20, current <20, current ≥20), alcohol intake (0, <24, 24- ≤ 48, >48 ethanol g/day), body mass index (<25, 25- < 30, 30+ kg/m2), diabetes (no/yes), calories, and education (≤ High School, some college, ≥college graduate)