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Table 3 Association between modifiable risk factors and GBD (HRa and 95% CI) by race/ethnicity

From: Sex and ethnic/racial-specific risk factors for gallbladder disease

  NH-White N = 2600 African American N = 2469 Native Hawaiian N = 511 Japanese American N = 3133 Latino US born N = 2398 Latino Mexico/SA born N = 2326
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 25 - < 30 1.30 (1.19–1.43) 1.21 (1.08–1.36) 1.27 (0.99–1.63) 1.37 (1.26–1.48) 1.20 (1.08–1.34) 1.29 (1.15–1.44)
 ≥ 30 1.68 (1.50–1.87) 1.56 (1.39–1.75) 1.62 (1.26–2.10) 1.73 (1.51–1.99) 1.56 (1.39–1.75) 1.74 (1.54–1.97)
P trend <.0001 <.0001 0.0002 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Diabetes
 No 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 1.35 (1.16–1.57) 1.58 (1.43–1.76) 1.33 (1.04–1.72) 1.27 (1.14–1.42) 1.57 (1.41–1.74) 1.47 (1.31–1.64)
Smoking (pack-years)
 Never 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 Past, < 20 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.17 (1.06–1.29) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 1.11 (1.02–1.22) 1.12 (1.01–1.23) 1.07 (0.96–1.19)
 Past, ≥ 20 1.10 (0.97–1.24) 1.32 (1.13–1.55) 0.93 (0.68–1.28) 1.34 (1.19–1.51) 1.09 (0.91–1.31) 1.38 (1.11–1.71)
 Current, <20 1.33 (1.11–1.59) 1.26 (1.10–1.44) 1.06 (0.75–1.51) 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 1.11 (0.95–1.30)
 Current, ≥ 20 1.30 (1.12–1.50) 1.50 (1.27–1.77) 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 1.3 (1.1–1.54) 1.38 (1.12–1.69) 0.90 (0.66–1.21)
P trend <.0001 <.0001 0.5831 <.0001 0.0055 0.1849
Alcohol intake (ethanol g/day)
 0 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 < 24 0.86 (0.78–0.94) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.84 (0.76–0.93)
 24- ≤ 48 0.82 (0.71–0.95) 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 1.05 (0.71–1.56) 0.83 (0.7–0.99) 0.77 (0.63–0.94) 0.74 (0.57–0.94)
 > 48 0.83 (0.69–1.00) 1.16 (0.93–1.46) 0.77 (0.45–1.32) 0.70 (0.52–0.93) 0.82 (0.65–1.03) 0.87 (0.65–1.16)
P trend 0.0011 0.5926 0.4816 0.0016 0.0016 0.0008
Vigorous activity (hrs/day)
 0 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 > 0- ≤ 0.21 0.91 (0.81–1.03) 0.96 (0.85–1.07) 1.20 (0.91–1.59) 0.91 (0.82–1.01) 0.87 (0.77–0.99) 0.79 (0.69–0.91)
 > 0.21- ≤ 0.46 0.88 (0.77–1.00) 0.80 (0.69–0.93) 1.10 (0.83–1.46) 1.05 (0.94–1.18) 0.94 (0.82–1.07) 0.79 (0.68–0.92)
 > 0.46 0.79 (0.71–0.89) 0.68 (0.59–0.80) 0.96 (0.75–1.24) 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 0.80 (0.71–0.91)
P trend <.0001 <.0001 0.7369 0.3474 0.4939 0.0001
Parityb
 0 children 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 1 child 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 1.13 (0.94–1.35) 1.26 (0.61–2.60) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 1.19 (0.88–1.62) 0.89 (0.66–1.20)
 2–3 children 1.11 (0.95–1.31) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.97 (0.55–1.72) 1.14 (0.97–1.34) 1.00 (0.79–1.27) 0.89 (0.70–1.12)
 ≥ 4 children 1.09 (0.91–1.29) 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 1.14 (0.65–1.99) 1.14 (0.94–1.37) 1.15 (0.92–1.45) 1.08 (0.87–1.33)
P trend 0.4436 0.3186 0.6047 0.0987 0.1931 0.0851
Age at first live birth (years)b
 No children 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 ≤ 20 1.20 (1.00–1.44) 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 1.19 (0.68–2.10) 1.09 (0.86–1.38) 1.10 (0.87–1.39) 0.99 (0.79–1.23)
 21–30 1.07 (0.91–1.25) 1.06 (0.90–1.24) 0.94 (0.54–1.65) 1.15 (0.98–1.34) 1.07 (0.85–1.34) 0.99 (0.80–1.23)
 > 30 0.98 (0.76–1.27) 1.14 (0.87–1.50) 1.03 (0.40–2.67) 1.11 (0.89–1.38) 1.10 (0.76–1.60) 0.97 (0.72–1.30)
P trend 0.6757 0.3744 0.2289 0.1600 0.8651 0.9194
Ever used birth controlb
 No 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 1.11 (0.98–1.25) 1.01 (0.89–1.13) 0.80 (0.59–1.08) 1.10 (0.96–1.25) 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 1.06 (0.92–1.21)
Menopausal Hormone Useb
 Never users 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
 Past users 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.90 (0.63–1.28) 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 1.09 (0.93–1.27) 0.89 (0.75–1.04)
 Current estrogen only 1.24 (1.07–1.43) 1.14 (0.98–1.34) 0.83 (0.55–1.24) 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 0.94 (0.79–1.13) 1.14 (0.92–1.40)
 Current estrogen + progesterone 1.23 (1.06–1.42) 1.14 (0.93–1.39) 0.85 (0.57–1.27) 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 1.07 (0.88–1.28) 0.96 (0.76–1.21)
  1. aHR stratified by set number (defined by matching factors: birth year, ethnicity, study area, duration of Medicare enrollment—for cases identified from Medicare) and adjusted for smoking-pack years (never, past <20, past ≥20, current <20, current ≥20), alcohol intake (0, <24, 24- ≤ 48, >48 ethanol g/day), body mass index (<25, 25- < 30, 30+ kg/m2), diabetes (no/yes), and education (≤ High School, some college, ≥college graduate)
  2. bFemales only