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Table 2 Associations between modifiable risk factors and GBD risk by sex

From: Sex and ethnic/racial-specific risk factors for gallbladder disease

  Men Women
Risk Factors No. Cases HRa(95% CI) No. Cases HRa(95% CI)
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 1577 1.00 (ref.) 2463 1.00 (ref.)
 25 - < 30 2612 1.23 (1.15–1.31) 2444 1.33 (1.25–1.41)
 ≥ 30 1076 1.55 (1.43–1.69) 2213 1.74 (1.63–1.85)
P trend   < .0001   < .0001
Diabetes
 No 4360 1.00 (ref.) 5968 1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 905 1.44 (1.34–1.55) 1152 1.46 (1.37–1.56)
Smoking (pack-years)
 Never 1537 1.00 (ref.) 4003 1.00 (ref.)
 Past, < 20 2013 1.09 (1.01–1.16) 1740 1.10 (1.04–1.16)
 Past, ≥ 20 888 1.16 (1.07–1.27) 418 1.30 (1.17–1.44)
 Current, < 20 411 1.16 (1.04–1.30) 582 1.17 (1.08–1.28)
 Current, ≥ 20 416 1.22 (1.09–1.37) 377 1.37 (1.23–1.53)
P trend   < .0001   < .0001
Alcohol intake (ethanol g/day)
 0 2185 1.00 (ref.) 4755 1.00 (ref.)
 < 24 2256 0.92 (0.86–0.97) 2083 0.86 (0.82–0.91)
 24- ≤ 48 501 0.85 (0.77–0.94) 190 0.80 (0.69–0.93)
 > 48 323 0.86 (0.76–0.97) 92 0.92 (0.74–1.14)
P trend   0.0001   < .0001
Vigorous Activity (hrs/day)
 0 2063 1.00 (ref.) 4567 1.00 (ref.)
 > 0- ≤ 0.21 892 0.89 (0.82–0.96) 1078 0.90 (0.84–0.97)
 > 0.21- ≤ 0.46 831 0.86 (0.79–0.94) 740 0.95 (0.87–1.03)
 > 0.46 1479 0.80 (0.74–0.86) 735 0.90 (0.83–0.98)
P trend   < .0001   0.0041
Parityb
 0 children    771 1.00 (ref.)
 1 child    746 1.09 (0.98–1.20)
 2–3 children    2906 1.05 (0.97–1.14)
 ≥ 4 children    2899 1.14 (1.05–1.23)
P trend     0.0036
Age at First Live Birth (years)b
 No children    771 1.00 (ref.)
 ≤ 20    2505 1.10 (1.01–1.20)
 21–30    3613 1.07 (0.99–1.15)
 > 30    433 1.05 (0.94–1.19)
P trend     0.5200
Ever Used Birth Controlb
 No    4714 1.00 (ref.)
 Yes    2608 1.05 (0.99–1.11)
Menopausal Hormone Useb
 Never users    3383 1.00 (ref.)
 Past users    1442 0.97 (0.91–1.04)
 Current estrogen-only    1113 1.09 (1.02–1.17)
 Current estrogen + progesterone    1099 1.06 (0.99–1.14)
  1. aHR stratified by set number (defined by matching factors: birth year, sex, ethnicity, study area, duration of Medicare enrollment—for cases identified from Medicare) and adjusted for smoking-pack years (never, past < 20, past ≥ 20, current < 20, current ≥ 20), alcohol intake (0, < 24, 24- ≤ 48, > 48 ethanol g/day), body mass index (< 25, 25- < 30, 30+ kg/m2), diabetes (no/yes), and education (≤ High School, some college, ≥college graduate). Menopausal hormone use limited to postmenopausal women
  2. bFemales only