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Table 7 Ranking of symptoms that are most commonly experienced in the Western studies

From: Frequency patterns of core constipation symptoms among the Asian adults: a systematic review

Symptom Rank 1st Rank 2nd Rank 3rd Rank 4th Rank 5th Rank 6th
Straining 82.3% [68] 77.1% [40] 41.9% [69]    
79.0% [36]   88.0% [42]    
82.2% [70]      
81.0% [71]      
49.0% [40]      
81.6% [42]      
Sensation incomplete evacuation 74.2% [69] 68% [42] 72.8% [68] 54.0% [36]   
   73.8% [70] 80.0% [42]   
   54.2% [71]    
   44.3% [40]    
   70.9% [40]    
Lumpy/hard stool 81.7% [40] 74.4% [68]   61.9% [42] 33.2% [69]  
100.0% [42] 71.0% [36]     
  74.8% [70]     
  71.5% [71]     
  45.5% [40]     
Sensation of anorectal blockage   53.9% [69]   38.8% [71] 40.4% [68] 30.0% [42]
    31.2% [40] 40.4% [70]  
    56.0% [40] 10.9% [42]  
Infrequent defecation   100.0% [42] 57.0% [36] 68.2% [68] 35.6% [71] 21.4% [69]
   68.0% [42] 64.3% [70] 25.7% [40]  
     53.1% [40]  
Manual maneuver     40.7% [69] 36.0% [42] 24.5% [68]
      24.6% [70]
      28.4% [71]
      10.2% [42]
      14.3% [40]
      32.6% [40]
  1. Italic, symptom of IBS-C