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Table 6 Selected Western studies of core constipation symptoms

From: Frequency patterns of core constipation symptoms among the Asian adults: a systematic review

Reference/ Country Sample /Age Settings Study design Sampling Sample size (response rate) Diagnostic criteria
Neri et al. (2016), Italy Chronic constipation patient, mean age 50.1 (SD, 16.7) 39 Italian referral centers for gastrointestinal disorders Cross-sectional Purposive 2203 Rome III
Enck et al. (2016), German Household adults, mean age 51.3 (SD, 0.6) Telephone registry Cross-sectional RLD 589 (56.8%) Rome III
Neri et al. (2014), Italy Chronic constipation patient, mean age 50.3 (SD: 16.6) 39 Italian referral centers for gastrointestinal disorders Cross-sectional Purposive 856 Rome III
Ford et al. (2014), Canada Referral patients, ≥16 years old 2 GI outpatient clinics of two hospitals Cross-sectional Purposive 3656 (86.6%) 343 FC 175 IBS-C Rome III
Bellini et al. (2013), Italy Chronic constipation patient, ≥18 years old Primary care settings in Province Pisa represented by 41 GPs. Cross-sectional Stratified cluster 229 147 FC 50 IBS-C 32 SPC Rome III
Johanson & Kralstein (2007), USA Adults, ≥18 years old Membership in the Knowledge Networks Panel Cross-sectional Purposive 557 Rome II
Pare et al. (2001), Canada Household members, ≥18 years old 5 regions Cross-sectional Stratified random 1149 (57%) Rome II
  1. FC functional constipation, GP grand practitioners, RLD Random last digit, GI gastrointestinal, SD standard deviation