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Table 3 Characteristics of ALT responders and non-responders before and after glutathione treatment

From: Efficacy of glutathione for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an open-label, single-arm, multicenter, pilot study

  ALT responders (n = 15) ALT non-responders (n = 14)
Before treatment After treatment P-value Before treatment After treatment P-value
Age (year) 50.7 ± 12.1 - 61.7 ± 12.4 -
Male/female (n) 9 (6) - 5 (9) -
Dyslipidemia (%) 12 (80.0) - 12 (85.7) -
Statin (%) 4 (26.7) - 8 (57.1) -
Diabetes (%) 5 (33.3) - 9 (64.3) -
BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 4.1 26.5 ± 4.0 0.23 26.6 ± 3.8 26.4 ± 3.9 0.45
FBS (mg/dL) 115.7 ± 37.9 113.0 ± 23.0 0.38 121.4 ± 31.2 128.2 ± 31.4 0.004
IRI (μU/mL) 23.5 ± 22.7 17.9 ± 14.3 0.14 22.6 ± 38.0 30.5 ± 31.4 0.11
HbA1c (%) 5.94 ± 1.03 6.08 ± 1.10 0.017 6.9 ± 1.2 6.89 ± 1.28 0.14
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 60.3 ± 18.6 57.4 ± 16.7 0.001 49.7 ± 11.7 52.2 ± 13.8 0.08
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 124.5 ± 33.1 117.1 ± 34.8 0.06 102.9 ± 18.6 104.1 ± 14.5 0.41
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 202.4 ± 164.1 178.8 ± 157.6 0.15 187.6 ± 103.3 146.2 ± 62.1 0.003
NEFA (μEq/L) 720.2 ± 285.0 576.0 ± 230.1 0.032 563.3 ± 143.0 473.9 ± 170.7 0.13
AST (IU/L) 46.3 ± 20.2 40.0 ± 20.7 0.11 47.1 ± 14.1 55.8 ± 19.3 0.003
ALT (IU/L) 77.1 ± 38.6 47.9 ± 28.1 <0.0001 60.1 ± 32.2 68.9 ± 36.3 0.005
GGT (IU/L) 81.9 ± 58.0 64.8 ± 48.4 0.07 58.0 ± 26.6 68.5 ± 48.3 0.06
Ferritin (ng/mL) 260.2 ± 164.5 217.7 ± 162.3 0.015 176.6 ± 126.1 169.5 ± 109.9 0.28
Platelet count (×104 /μL) 20.3 ± 4.6 20.2 ± 4.7 0.45 21.3 ± 6.8 21.8 ± 6.0 0.25
Type IV collagen 7 s 4.61 ± 1.13 4.39 ± 1.06 0.10 5.59 ± 2.51 5.42 ± 1.49 0.13
Glutathione in protein fraction (μM) 1.53 ± 0.92 0.88 ± 0.53 0.004 1.27 ± 0.83 1.00 ± 0.77 0.24
Glutathione in deprotenized fraction (μM) 0.017 ± 0.020 0.019 ± 0.029 0.60 0.036 ± 0.057 0.018 ± 0.017 0.19
CAP (db/m) 300.3 ± 41.1 285.1 ± 53.2 0.049 290.4 ± 50.2 285.8 ± 44.9 0.31
LSM (kPa) 8.71 ± 4.63 7.91 ± 4.22 0.19 11.36 ± 5.05 10.9 ± 4.38 0.32
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FBS fasting blood sugar, IRI immunoreactive insulin, HBA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL cholesterol high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL cholesterol low density lipoprotein cholesterol, NEFA non-esterified fatty acid, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, CAP controlled attenuation parameter, LSM liver stiffness measurement