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Fig. 5 | BMC Gastroenterology

Fig. 5

From: Role of serotonin on the intestinal mucosal immune response to stress-induced diarrhea in weaning mice

Fig. 5

The changes in the cytokines in the intestines of mice. Cytokine levels were determined using ELISA. TNF-α (a) and IL-2 (b) levels increased in the the jejunum and the colons of mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea when compared with the control group. However, IL-4 levels (c) in the colon and IL-10 levels (d) in the ileum decreased sharply due to stress-induced diarrhea. Pretreatment with PCPA caused a decrease in the levels of the four cytokines when compared with the stress-induced diarrhea group. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

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