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Table 2 Baseline characteristics for individuals with and individuals without defined peptic ulcer during 33 months

From: Perceived stress as a risk factor for peptic ulcers: a register-based cohort study

Variable Level No ulcera (n = 17,404) Ulcera (n = 121) Total (n = 17525) P-value
PSS-10 Group 0 - Low stress level 3497 (20.1) 13 (10.7) 3510 (20.0)  
1 3036 (17.4) 18 (14.9) 3054 (17.4)  
2 3517 (20.2) 17 (14.0) 3534 (20.2)  
3 3719 (21.4) 26 (21.5) 3745 (21.4)  
4 - High stress level 3635 (20.9) 47 (38.8) 3682 (21.0) <0.0001
Gender Male 8773 (50.4) 51 (42.1) 8824 (50.4)  
Female 8631 (49.6) 70 (57.9) 8701 (49.6) 0.0855
Age Mean (sd) 49.6 (17.1) 60.7 (15.1) 49.7 (17.1) <0.0001
Smoking No, never 8329 (47.9) 44 (36.4) 8373 (47.8)  
No, but used to 5022 (28.9) 40 (33.1) 5062 (28.9)  
Yes, <15 a day 2268 (13.0) 16 (13.2) 2284 (13.0)  
Yes,>14 a day 1785 (10.3) 21 (17.4) 1806 (10.3) 0.0191
Alcohol consumptionb Over recommended 1496 (8.6) 7 (5.8) 1503 (8.6)  
Within recommended 15908 (91.4) 114 (94.2) 16022 (91.4) 0.3486
NSAID-use No 6792 (39.0) 27 (22.3) 6819 (38.9)  
Yes 10612 (61.0) 94 (77.7) 10706 (61.1) 0.0002
Educational Level Primary 5597 (32.2) 52 (43.0) 5649 (32.2)  
Secondary 7647 (43.9) 56 (46.3) 7703 (44.0)  
Higher 4160 (23.9) 13 (10.7) 4173 (23.8) 0.0013
Body Mass Index Underweight 338 (1.9) 4 (3.3) 342 (2.0)  
Normal weight 7953 (45.7) 52 (43.0) 8005 (45.7)  
Overweight 9113 (52.4) 65 (53.7) 9178 (52.4) 0.5010
Sleep <7 h/day 3180 (18.3) 33 (27.3) 3213 (18.3)  
7 h/day 6729 (38.7) 29 (24.0) 6758 (38.6)  
>7 h/day 7495 (43.1) 59 (48.8) 7554 (43.1) 0.0015
Household Incomec <243,646 3942 (22.6) 38 (31.4) 3980 (22.7)  
243,646-451,597.50 4200 (24.1) 39 (32.2) 4239 (24.2)  
451,597.50–665,147 4502 (25.9) 23 (19.0) 4525 (25.8)  
>665,147 4760 (27.4) 21 (17.4) 4781 (27.3) 0.0030
Previous Ulcer No previous Ulcer 16862 (96.9) 106 (87.6) 16968 (96.8)  
Previous Ulcer 542 (3.1) 15 (12.4) 557 (3.2) <0.0001
  1. Baseline date was 22nd of March, 2010. Follow-up was 33 months. Mean and standard deviation (sd) were reported for continuous covariates, whereas categorical covariates were described with frequencies and percentages
  2. aUlcer implies a diagnosis or triple therapy (proton inhibitor or H2-receptor antagonist and 2 relevant antibiotics)
  3. bRecommended maximum consumption per week was 14 units for women and 21 units for men
  4. cHousehold income was reported in Danish Kroner (DKK)