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Table 1 Etiologies and therapies of proximal esophageal variceal hemorrhage in case series

From: Bleeding ‘downhill’ esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review

Citation Etiology of proximal esophageal varices Number of patients Treatment (n)
Nayudu et al. 2013, USA [8], Vorlop et al 2008, USA [9], Froilan et al. 2008, Spain [6], Hussein et al. 2008, USA [10], Greenwell et al. 2007, USA [11], Blam et al. 2002, USA [12], Pop et al. 1998, USA [13], Gopaluni at al. 2009, UK [14] Central venous catheter 9 Angioplasty (2), angioplasty and superior vena cava stenting (2), sclerotherapy and superior vena cava stenting (1), surgical vascular reconstruction (1), removal of central venous catheter (1), supportive care (1)
Pashankar et al. 1999, Canada [15], Mikkelson at al. 1963, USA [16], Savoy et al. 2004, USA [17], Sundermann et al. 1960, Germany [18], Johnson et al. 1978 Canada [19] Thoracic Malignancy 5 Sclerotherapy (1), band ligation and superior vena cava stenting (1), surgical resection of cancer (1), supportive care (1), not reported (1)
Yasar et al. 2015, Turkey [20], Basaranoglu et al. 1999, Turkey [21], Glanz et al. 1982, USA [22], Pugliese 1973, USA [23], Snodgrass et al. 1961, USA [24] Mediastinal Fibrosis 5 Conservative (2), steroids (1), Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (1), not reported (1)
Papazian et al. 1983, France [25], Palmer et al. 1952, USA [26] Superior vena cava obstruction (not otherwise specified) 4 Conservative (3), not reported (1)
Ibis et al. 2007, Turkey [27], Fleig et al. 1982, USA [28], Kelly et al. 1982, USA [29] Thyroid goiter 3 Band ligation (1), Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (1), surgical resection of thyroid goiter (1)
Tavakkoli at al. 2006, Iran [30], Ichikawa et al. 1991, Japan [31] Behcet’s syndrome 2 Band ligation (1), supportive care (1)
Calderwood et al. 2008, USA [32], Maton et al. 1985, USA [33] Upper extremity DVT 2 Band ligation, angioplasty, and superior vena cava stenting (1), conservative (1)
Tincani et al. 1998, Italy [34] Cirrhosis 1 Diagnosis at autopsy
Malloy et al. 2013, USA [35] Post Fontan cardiac surgery 1 Angioplasty and superior vena cava stenting
Tsokos et al. 1998, Germany [36] Post thyroidectomy 1 Sclerotherapy
Areia et al. 2006, Portugal [2] Pulmonary hypertension 1 Supportive care
Pillai et al. 2013, USA [4] Hemodialysis reliable outflow (HeRO) graft associated 1 Band ligation
Martorell et al. 1955, Spain [37] Ligation of SVC 1 Not reported
  1. USA United States of America, SVC superior vena cava, DVT deep vein thrombosis