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Table 1 Consensus criteria for ERCP complicationsab

From: Is endoscopic treatment beneficial in patients with clinically suspicious of common bile duct stones but no obvious filling defects during the ERCP examination?

  Mild Moderate Severe
Bleeding Clinical evidence of bleeding (ie, not just endoscopic); Hb level drop <3 g; no need for transfusion. Transfusion: ≤4 units; no angiographic intervention or surgery. Transfusion: ≥5 units or intervention (angiographic or surgical).
Perforation Possible, or only very slight leak of fluid or contrast dye; treatable by fluids and suction for ≤3 days. Any definite perforation treated medically for 4–10 days. Medical treatment for more than 10 days or intervention (percutaneous or surgical).
Pancreatitis Clinical pancreatitis; amylase at least 3 times normal at more than 24 hours after the procedure requiring admission or prolongation of planned admission to 2–3 days. Pancreatitis requiring hospitalization of 4–10 days. Pancreatitis requiring hospitalization for more than 10 days, or hemorrhagic pancreatitis, phlegmon or pseudocyst, or intervention (percutaneous drainage or surgery).
Infection (cholangitis) >38°C at 24–48 hours. Febrile or septic illness requiring >3 days of hospital treatment or endoscopic or percutaneous intervention Septic shock or surgery.
  1. ie, mild, unplanned hospital stay of 2–3 nights; moderate, 4–10 nights; and severe (>10 nights or intensive care or surgery)
  2. aFrom Ref. 6 and 11. ERCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  3. bAll other complications were graded for severity of the need for hospitalization and/or surgical treatment