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Table 2 Microbiota colonization pattern significantly associated to the mode of delivery at different postnatal periods in the first year of life

From: The mode of delivery affects the diversity and colonization pattern of the gut microbiota during the first year of infants' life: a systematic review

Period for fecal sample collection Type of Bacteria species identified Colonization rates P-value Interpretation Reference
   Vaginally delivered Infants CS delivered Infants    
From birth to 7 days Actinobacteria      
 Bifidobacterium- like bacteria 41 % 4 % P = 0.003 Lower in the CS delivered infants [34]
 Bifidobacterium OTU1 28 % 6 % P = 0.042 Lower in the CS delivered infants [35]
 Bifidobacterium – like 85 % 36 % P < 0.001 Lower in the CS delivered infants [20]
 Bifidobacterium P < 0.05 Lower in the CS delivered infants [26]
Proteobacteria      
 Enterobacteriaceae P = 0.0174 Lower in the CS delivered infants [36]
 Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Haemophilus P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
Bacteriodetes      
 Bacteroides 73 % 11 % P = 0.005 Lower in the CS delivered infants [27]
 Bacteroides – prevotella P = 0.0130 Lower in the CS delivered infants [36]
 Bacteroides fragilis 68 % 3 % P < 0.001 Lower in the CS delivered infants [20]
 Bacteroides P < 0.05 Lower in the CS delivered infants [26]
Firmicutes      
 Lactobacilli 59 % 4 % P = 0.000 Lower in the CS delivered infants [34]
 Lactobacillus P < 0.001 Lower in the CS delivered infants [36]
 Clostridiaceae1 P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Veillonella    P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Klebsiella P = 5.8E−8 Higher in the CS infants [35]
From 8 to 30 days Actinobacteria      
 Bifidobacterium-like 53 % 0 P = 0.007 Not detected in the CS delivered infants [34]
 Bifidobacterium-like 98 % 58 % P < 0.001 Lower in the CS delivered infants [20]
 Bifidobacterium P < 0.05 Lower in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Bifidobacteria P = 0.001 Lower in the CS delivered infants [21]
Proteobacteria      
 Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Haemophilus P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
Bacteroidetes      
 Bacteroides-prevotella P = 0.0338 Lower in the CS delivered infants [36]
 Bacteroides fragilis 63 % 0 P < 0.001 Not detected in the CS delivered infants [20]
 Bacteroides P < 0. 05 Lower in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Bacteroides P < 0.05 Lower in the CS delivered infants [27]
Firmicutes      
 Clostridium perfringens 17 % 57 % P = 0.003 Higher in the CS delivered infants [20]
 Clostridium P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Veillonella P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
 Enterococcus P < 0.0001 Higher in the CS delivered infants [27]
From 31 to 90 days Actinobacteria      
 Bifidobacterium P = 0.0064 Lower in the CS delivered infants [36]
 Bifidobacterium 33 % P = 0.046 Lower in the CS delivered infants [35]
Proteobacteria      
 Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
Bacteroidetes      
 Bacteroides-prevotella P = 0.0336 Lower in the CS delivered infants [36]
 Bacteroides 73 % 11 % P = 0.005 Lower in the CS delivered infants [27]
 Bacteroides fragilis 78 % 14 % P < 0.001 Lower in the CS delivered infants [20]
 Bacteroides P < 0.05 Lower in the CS delivered infants [26]
Firmicutes      
 Clostridium P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
From 91 to 180 days Actinobacteria      
 Bifidobacterium 40 % P = 0.046 Lower in CS delivered infants [35]
Proteobacteria      
 Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
Bacteroidetes      
 Bacteroides fragilis 76 % 36 % P = 0.009 Lower in the CS delivered infants [20]
Firmicutes      
 Clostridiales P < 0.05 Higher in the CS delivered infants [26]
From 181 to 360 days Bacteroidetes      
 Bacteroides 93 % 44 % P = 0.015 Lower in the CS delivered infants [27]
  1. “-“data not available