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Table 3 Presence of co-morbidities and adherence to the gluten-free diet (GFD) in 1358 celiac disease patientsa

From: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes in celiac disease: prevalence and effect on clinical and histological presentation

  DM1 DM2 No diabetes P value
n = 51 n = 38 n = 1269 Crudeb Adjustedc
Co-morbidity, %      
Autoimmune thyroidal diseases 18 16 13 0.538 0.043
Coronary artery disease 18 29 3 <0.001 <0.001
Hypertension 31 47 15 <0.001 <0.001
Hypercholesterolemia 8 24 6 0.001 0.024
Osteoporosis or osteopenia 4 11 13 0.165 0.225
Asthma 4 13 7 0.265 0.456
Malignancyd 4 5 4 0.815 0.873
Gastrointestinal diseasee 8 40 25 0.002 0.028
GFD, median (range), yr 6 (1–36) 7 (1–32) 8 (1–59) 0.935  
Strictness of GFD, %     <0.001  
Strict 71 95 96   
Occasional gluten 22 5 4   
No diet 6 0 0   
Positive EmA on GFD, % 30 9 6 <0.001 <0.001
  1. DM1, type 1 diabetes; DM2, type 2 diabetes
  2. EmA endomysial antibodies
  3. aCeliac disease patients with or without concomitant DM1 or DM2
  4. bChi-square and Fisher’s exact test
  5. cAdjusted for current age, age at celiac disease diagnosis and gender by logistic regression
  6. dCancer of breast, prostate, colon, small intestine, uterus, thyroid gland, ovary, lip, spine; sarcoma
  7. eLactose intolerance, food allergy, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, gastric ulcer, diverticulosis, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, chronic gastritis, diverticulitis, undefined colitis, chronic hepatitis