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Table 3 Confounder-adjusted effects of definite epilepsy, unspecified seizures, and use of antiepileptic drugs for non-epilepsy indications on the hazard rate of HE episodes grade 1, 2, 3, or 4

From: Epilepsy as a risk factor for hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis: a cohort study

  Adjusted hazard ratio
Patient category (after re-categorization)
 Definite epilepsy 2.49 (0.78–7.90)
 Unspecified seizures 1.50 (0.47–4.76)
 Antiepileptic drugs for non-epilepsy indications 1.52 (0.74–3.12)
 Controls 1 (reference)
Male vs. female 1.08 (0.83–1.40)
Age, per 10-year increase 1.17 (1.03–1.32)
Cirrhosis etiology
 Alcohol alone (%) 1 (reference)
 Hepatitis C alone (%) 1.65 (1.19–2.30)
 Other (%) 1.35 (1.03–1.76)
Diabetes 1.38 (1.06–1.78)
History of HE before randomization 1.70 (1.33–2.18)
MELD score, per point 1.09 (1.07–1.11)
Sodium, per 5 mmol/L increase 0.63 (0.57–0.70)
Albumin, per 5 g/L increase 0.78 (0.70–0.87)
Lactulose, any dose vs. none 1.80 (1.41–2.29)
Rifaximin, any dose vs. none 0.59 (0.32–1.11)
Benzodiazepines/barbiturates, any dose vs. none 1.23 (0.86–1.76)