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Table 2 Confounder-adjusted effect of a recorded diagnosis of epilepsy on the hazard rate of HE episodes grade 1, 2, 3, or 4

From: Epilepsy as a risk factor for hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis: a cohort study

  Adjusted hazard ratio
Epilepsy (as recorded) 2.12 (0.99–4.55)
Male vs. female 1.07 (0.83–1.39)
Age, per 10-year increase 1.17 (1.04–1.32)
Cirrhosis etiology
 Alcohol alone (%) 1 (reference)
 Hepatitis C alone (%) 1.64 (1.18–2.28)
 Other (%) 1.35 (1.03–1.76)
Diabetes 1.41 (1.09–1.82)
History of HE before randomization 1.72 (1.34–2.20)
MELD score, per point 1.09 (1.07–1.11)
Sodium, per 5 mmol/L increase 0.64 (0.58–0.71)
Albumin, per 5 g/L increase 0.78 (0.70–0.87)
Lactulose, any dose vs. none 1.79 (1.41–2.28)
Rifaximin, any dose vs. none 0.59 (0.32–1.10)
Benzodiazepines/barbiturates, any dose vs. none 1.22 (0.85–1.74)