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Table 7 Microbiological isolates in bile and drain fluid cultures of all patients

From: Role of preoperative biliary stents, bile contamination and antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical site infections after pancreaticoduodenectomy

Microorganism Bile Draina
Patients CEF resb AMP resc P valued Patients CEF resb AMP resc P valued
N (%) % %   N (%) (%) (%)
Enterococcus spp. 79 (74.5) 100 13.9 <0.001 67 (69.1) 100 28.9 <0.001
Escherichia coli 39 (36.8) 59 41 <0.113 26 (26.8) 76.9 57.7 <0.139
Klebsiella spp. 37 (34.9) 35.1 21.6 0.197 18 (18.6) 72.2 50 0.171
Enterobacter spp. 19 (17.9) 94.7 94.7 1.000 24 (24.7) 95.8 100 0.312
Citrobacter spp. 10 (9.4) 80 80 - 6 (6.2) 100 83.3 -
Hafnia alvei 7 (6.6) 71.4 100 - 3 (3.1) 100 100 -
Staphylococcus spp. 5 (4.7) 40 40 - 26 (26.8) 73.1 92.3 0.067
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 (3.8) 100 100 - 8 (8.3) 100 100 -
Aeromonas spp. 3 (2.8) 66.7 33.3 - 0 / / -
Serratia Marcescens 2 (1.9) 100 100 - 4 (4.1) 100 100 -
Streptococcus spp. 2 (1.9) 100 50 - 3 (3.1) 66.7 0 -
Morganella morganii 1 (0.9) 100 100 - 2 (2.1) 100 100 -
Proteus spp. 1 (0.9) 100 100 - 2 (2.1) 100 50 -
Candida spp. 9 (8.5) / / / 21 (21.7) / / /
  1. aDrains with positive culture (surgical and percutaneous)
  2. bCefazolin resistance
  3. cAmpicillin-sulbactam resistance
  4. dCorrelation between cefazolin resistance and Ampicillin-sulbactam resistance
  5. - Data were not compared due to the small sample size;/Not evaluable