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Table 3 Variables associated with symptom-based GERD determined by GerdQ in the 1072 participants in south-western India

From: Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its risk factors in a community-based population in southern India

   GerdQ Univariate Mutually-adjusted
Variables   <8 ≥8 Odds Ratio (95 % CI) Odds Ratio (95 % CI)
Total   834 238   
Age (y)
  20–29 157 16 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  30–39 222 55 2.4 (1.3–4.4) 2.1 (1.1–3.9)
  40–49 215 60 2.7 (1.5–4.9) 2.2 (1.2–4.1)
  50–59 137 61 4.3 (2.4–7.9) 3.3 (1.7–6.3)
  ≥60 103 46 4.4 (2.3–8.2) 3.0 (1.5–6.1)
Sex
  Men 250 85 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  Women 584 153 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.7 (0.5–1.1)
BMI (kg/m2)a
  <25 570 139 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  25–29.9 222 76 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 1.4 (1.0–2.0)
  ≥30 42 23 2.2 (1.3–3.9) 2.3 (1.3–4.1)
Domicile
  Rural 592 139 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  Urban 242 99 1.7 (1.3–2.3) 1.8 (1.3–2.5)
Educational level
  Low (0–8) 247 97 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  Middle (9–12) 345 101 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
  High (≥13) 219 35 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.6 (0.4–1.0)
Religion
  Hinduism 700 191 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  Muslim 83 25 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 1.4 (0.8–2.3)
  Christian 30 16 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 1.6 (0.8–3.1)
Pan masala chewing
  Never 768 202 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  ever chewer 65 36 2.1 (1.4–3.3) 2.0 (1.2–3.2)
Cigarette smoking
  Never 716 197 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
  ever smoker 116 40 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.2)
  1. a BMI, body-mass index