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Table 2 Estimation of hazard ratios of mortality in patients with esophageal variceal bleeding between 2005 and 2010 using cox proportional model

From: Effect of coexisting diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease on mortality of cirrhotic patients with esophageal variceal bleeding

  42-day mortality One-year mortality
  HR 95 % C.I. p-value HR 95 % C.I. p-value
Sex (reference: Female)       
 Male 1.37 0.93–2.02 0.109 1.54 1.19–2.00 0.001
Age at the first diagnosis of EVB (reference: <50)       
 50–69 0.93 0.63–1.38 0.721 1.03 0.77–1.38 0.831
  ≥ 70 0.77 0.45–1.34 0.361 1.24 0.85–1.81 0.269
Comorbidities       
 DM 0.79 0.57–1.10 0.163 0.88 0.71–1.09 0.241
 CKD 1.80 1.10–2.97 0.021 1.52 1.06–2.17 0.023
 COPD 0.88 0.59–1.31 0.533 0.85 0.65–1.12 0.251
 Asthma 1.19 0.70–2.00 0.526 1.08 0.75–1.55 0.699
 TB 0.68 0.27–1.88 0.460 0.65 0.34–1.24 0.191
 Previous episode of acute coronary syndrome 1.01 0.68–1.51 0.954 1.04 0.79–1.36 0.779
Previous episode of cerebrovascular accident 1.54 0.99–2.38 0.054 1.21 0.89–1.65 0.214
Etiology of cirrhosis       
 HBV 1.13 0.82–1.54 0.465 1.07 0.86–1.33 0.559
 HCV 0.81 0.57–1.14 0.224 0.86 0.68–1.09 0.217
Alcoholism 0.76 0.52–1.11 0.157 0.74 0.57–0.97 0.031
Complication of cirrhosis       
 HCC 2.13 1.54–2.95 <0.001 2.48 1.99–3.10 <0.001
 Infection during hospitalization 1.65 0.99–2.75 0.055 1.50 1.03–2.18 0.035
Previous episodes of decompensation required hospitalization within 1 year before EVB       
Ascites (reference: 0)       
 1 1.66 1.10–2.52 0.017 1.60 1.18–2.18 0.003
  ≥ 2 1.77 1.04–3.02 0.036 1.73 1.18–2.55 0.005
Hepatic encephalopathy (reference: 0)       
 1 0.98 0.54–1.79 0.949 1.09 0.72–1.67 0.680
  ≥ 2 1.09 0.59–1.99 0.793 1.28 0.82–1.99 0.271
SBP (reference: 0)       
 1 0.63 0.28–1.41 0.258 1.20 0.76–1.92 0.435
  ≥ 2 3.42 1.38–8.50 0.008 2.93 1.24–6.93 0.015
Low income 0.70 0.25–1.99 0.503 1.63 0.95–2.79 0.078
Urbanization (reference: Urban)       
 Sub-urban 1.02 0.75–1.39 0.891 1.09 0.87–1.35 0.455
 Rural 0.58 0.34–0.98 0.043 0.84 0.61–1.15 0.270
  1. CI confidence interval, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DM diabetes mellitus, EVB esophageal variceal bleeding, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, HCV hepatitis C virus, HR hazard ratio, SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, TB pulmonary tuberculosis